《牛津英语词典》新增“Brencheese”、“Spoiler Alert”等词 分享到
Oxford English Dictionary Adds ‘Brencheese,’ ‘Spoiler Alert’ 2018-07-0155828

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In June, the Oxford English Dictionary, or OED, added about 1,000 words and new definitions to its website. The changes are to help users understand a mix of terms, some dating back many centuries. The additions include words such as “brencheese” “deathshildy” and “hip-pop.”
今年6月,《牛津英语词典》(简称OED)在其网站上新增了约1000个单词和新定义。这些变化旨在帮助用户理解各种术语,其中一些可以追溯到几个世纪以前。添加的单词包括“brencheese”、“deathshildy”、“hip-pop”等。
The new entries are part of the company’s update to Oed.com, its searchable online dictionary for paid members. The OED makes changes to the website four times each year.
这些新词条是该公司对Oed.com网站更新的一部分。Oed.com是付费会员专享的在线检索词典。《牛津英语词典》每年对该网站修改四次。
But the latest print version has been in process since the year 2000, and may not be ready for 10 more years. That information comes from Katherine Connor Martin, who heads the company’s dictionary operations in the United States.
但是最新的印刷版本从2000年就已经开始编排,而且可能还需要10年才能完成。这些信息来自凯瑟琳·康纳·马丁,她负责该公司在美国的字典业务。
Usually, the OED watches usage of a word for at least 10 years before deciding whether to add a new entry, new definition or word related to an existing entry, she said.This general rule, however, is sometimes not followed. That is what happened with “tweet,” a word that the OED added far before the 10-year mark.
她说,《牛津英语词典》通常会持续至少十年来关注一个词的用法,然后再决定是否添加一个新的词条、新的定义,还是与现有词条相关的词。然而,有时并不完全遵守这一规则。《牛津英语词典》添加“tweet”这个词的时间远远超过了十年。
Other times, the company adds words that are very old, but were not included in the dictionary in the past.
其他时候,该公司会添加一些非常古老的词汇,但过去没有收录在字典里。
“It’s funny because we talk about new words, but many of the words we add are already obsolete.It’s just that they were never in the dictionary before,” Martin told the Associated Press.
“这很有趣,因为我们谈论新词,但是我们添加的很多单词已经过时了。这些新词以前从来没有出现在字典上,”马丁告诉美联社。
That is the reality, she said, of a historical dictionary trying to put more than 1,000 years of English into books that already have over 855,000 entries. So, you get “brencheese,” a rarely used term for when bread and cheese are eaten together. The word dates back to the year 1665. The word “deathshildy” is from Old English. It means someone who is guilty of a serious crime and condemned to death.
她说,这就是现实,一本历史词典试图将1000多年历史的英语编入已经有超过85.5万词条的书籍中。所以,你就会看到“brencheese”,这是一个很少使用的术语,指面包和奶酪一起吃。这个词可以追溯到1665年。“deathshildy”一词来自古英语。它指的是犯有严重罪行并被判处死刑的人。
The website defines the term “hip-pop” for music that combines parts of hip-hop and popular music.The OED discovered the term “hip-hip pop” was used in a 1985 story from a Pennsylvania newspaper. It noted that the term “hip-pop” appeared in a 1991 U.S. newspaper report about the rap artist M.C. Hammer.
该网站定义了“hip-pop”一词,即嘻哈和流行音乐结合的音乐。《牛津英语词典》发现,“hip-hip pop”一词出现在1985年宾夕法尼亚州一家报纸的一篇报道中。还指出“hip-pop”一词出现在1991年美国报纸上关于说唱歌手M.C. Hammer的报道中。
The website has added several other terms related to modern culture. They include three popular terms: “binge-watching,” “spoiler alert” and “microaggression.”
该网站还增加了一些与现代文化相关的词汇。包括三个流行词汇:“刷剧”、“剧透警告”和“微攻击”。
Here are a few other new entries:
以下是一些其他的新词条:
“Imposter syndrome” dates back to 1982 when Vogue magazine published a story about women who suffered from “impostor phenomenon.”Psychologists use this expression usually when talking to patients about their employment and the workplace.“Imposter phenomenon” means the “inability to believe that one’s success is justified or has been achieved as a result of one’s own efforts or skills.”
“自我能力否定倾向”一词可以追溯到1982年,当时《Vogue杂志》发表了一篇关于女性遭遇“自我能力否定倾向”的文章。心理学家通常在与病人谈论他们的工作和工作场所时使用这个表达。“自我能力否定倾向”是指“无法相信自己的成功是正当的,或者是由于自己的努力或技能而获得的。”
The terms “imposter syndrome” and “imposter phenomenon” have the same meaning, with “imposter syndrome” currently the more popular of the two.The term dates to a psychotherapy story published in 1978.
“自我能力否定综合征”和“自我能力否定倾向”意义相同,目前“自我能力否定综合征”更为流行。这个词可以追溯到1978年出版的一个心理治疗故事。
Changing ideas about human sexuality and relationships resulted in the words “heteromantic,” “biromantic,” “aromantic” and “homoromantic,” Martin noted. “People have begun to self-identify as asexual, but they may still have romantic feelings short of actual sex,” she said. Before, there was no word to describe this. A person who identifies as asexual does not desire sex but can still want a romantic relationship that does not involve sex. But, if they do not want sex or romance of any kind, they are both asexual and aromantic, Martin added.
“异性浪漫”、“双性浪漫”、“无浪漫”和“同性浪漫”,都是人们对人类性行为和两性观念的改变。她说:“人们已经开始把自己定义为无性者,但他们可能仍然有浪漫的感觉,但缺乏实际的性欲。”在此之前,没有任何词语来描述这一现象。一个被认定为无性者的人不渴望性,但仍然想要一段不涉及性的浪漫关系。但是,如果他们不想要任何形式的性或浪漫,他们就是无浪漫情结无性者,马丁补充道。
The word “homophily” is similar in meaning to the expressions “birds of a feather flock together” and “like attracts like.” The OED defines homophily as a way of behaving in which people seek those they believe to be most like themselves. It shows society’s growing resistance to having ties with people of dissimilar opinions. The dictionary found that “homophily” was first used in a 1953 article published in a sociological journal. The more general definition is “similarities between individuals or groups.”
“同质性”一词的意思与“物以类聚、人以群分”的意思相近。《牛津英语词典》将同质性定义为人们寻找他们认为与自己最相像的人的一种行为方式。它显示了社会日益抗拒与持不同观点的人建立联系。《牛津英语词典》发现,1953年在一本社会学杂志上发表的一篇文章中首次使用了“同质性”一词。更普遍的定义是“个体或群体之间的相似性”。
I’m Bryan Lynn. And I’m Alice Bryant.
我是布莱恩·林恩。我是爱丽丝·布莱恩特。

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