Ever since I was a young girl, I was always fascinated --
OK, I meant younger and more short.
If that’s possible to imagine.But ever since I was a young girl,I was always fascinated with how the world worked exactly how it did.So this, very early on,led me to the fields of mathematics and chemistry.I would keep going further and further, and as I kept going,I realized that all the fields of science are interconnected.And without one, the others have little or no value.
如果能想像的话。但从我是个小女孩的时候开始，我就一直很喜欢 这个世界运作的方式。所以，很早期，这一点就引领我进入了数学和化学的领域。我会一直深入再深入， 而随着我一路走下去，我了解到，科学的所有领域 都是相互连结的。没有一个领域，其他领域的价值 就变得很低或没价值了。
So, inspired by Marie Curie and my local science museum,I decided to start asking these questions myselfand engage in my own independent research,whether it be out of my garage or my bedroom.
I started reading journal papers,started doing science competitions,started participating in science fairs,doing anything I couldto get the knowledge that I so desperately wanted.So while I was studying anatomy for a competition,I came across the topic of something called chronic wounds.And one thing that stood out to me was a statisticthat said that the number of people in the United States with chronic woundsexceeds the number of people with breast cancer,colon cancer, lung cancer and leukemia, combined.Hold up.So what is a chronic wound?
And why haven’t I heard about a 5K walk for chronic wounds,why haven’t I even heard about a chronic wound in general?
So after I got past those preliminary questions,and one that I will clarify for you,a chronic wound is essentially when someone gets a normal wound,except it fails to heal normallybecause the patient has some kind of preexisting condition,which in most cases is diabetes.
So more staggering statistics were to be foundas I kept going on in this research.In the year 2010 alone,50 billion dollars were spent worldwide to treat chronic wounds.In addition, it’s estimated that about two percent of the populationwill get a chronic wound at some point in their lifetime.This was absurd.
当我继续研究这个主题时，也发现了更惊人的统计数字。光在 2010 年，全球就有五百亿美金 花费在治疗慢性伤口。此外，估计人口中有 2% 的人会在人生的某个时点 遭受慢性伤口的困扰。这太荒唐了。
So as I started doing more research,I found that there was a correlationbetween the moisture level inside a wound dressingand the stage of healing that the chronic wound would be at.So I decided, why don’t I design somethingto measure the moisture level within the woundso this can help doctors and patients treat their wounds better.And essentially, expedite the healing process.So that’s exactly what I set out to do.Being a 14-year-old working out of her garage-turned-lab,I had a lot of constraints.Most being that I wasn’t given a grant, I wasn’t given a lot of money,and I wasn’t given a lot of resources.In addition, I had a lot of criteria, as well.Since this product would be readily interacting with the body,it had to be biocompatible,it also had to be low-cost,as I was designing it and paying for it myself.It also had to be mass-manufacturable,because I wanted it to be made anywhere, for anyone.
于是我开始做更多研究，我发现有一种相关性存在于伤口包扎内的湿度与慢性伤口所处的愈合阶段之间。所以我下了决定， 我为什么不来做个设计，来测量伤口内的湿度，这样就能协助医生和病人 把伤口处理得更好？从根本上，还能促进愈合过程。那就是我打算要做的计画。身为一个十四岁的女孩， 在车库改装成的实验室中工作，我其实碰到许多限制。大部分是因为我没有补助， 没有人赞助我资金，且我能取得的资源并不多。此外，我还有许多标准要符合。因为这个产品将来 要用来和身体互动，它必须要有生物相容性，它的成本要很低，因为是我得自己出钱设计的。它也要能够大量生产，因为我希望任何地方的 任何人都能用它。
Thus, I drafted up a schematic.What you see on the left hand-side is the early schematics in my design,showing both a bird’s-eye view and also one stacking variant.A stacking variant meansthat the entire product is consisted of different individual partsthat have to work in unison.And what’s shown there is one possible arrangement.
因此，我起草了一张概图。左手边的是我设计的初期概图，有鸟瞰的视角和堆叠的变化。所谓堆叠的变化，意思是整个产品 是由独立个别部件所组成，它们得要能同调地一起运作。各位看到的是其中 一种可能的排列方式。
So what exactly is this?So I had gone on to testing my sensorsand as all scientists have stumbles along their work,I also had a couple of problems in my first generation of sensors.First of all, I couldn’t figure outhow to get a nanoparticle ink into a printcheck cartridgewithout spilling it all over my carpet.That was problem number one.Problem number two was,I couldn’t exactly control the sensitivity of my sensors.I couldn’t scale them up or down,I couldn’t really do anything of that sort.So I wanted something to solve it.Problem one was easily solved by some scouting on eBay and Amazonfor syringes that I could use.Problem two, however, required a lot more thought.
所以，这到底是什么？我去测试我的感测器，所有的科学家在研究路上 都会有被绊倒的时候，而我的第一代感测器 也遇到了一些问题。首先，我想不透要如何把奈米墨水放入 列印检查墨水匣当中，且不能溅到我的地毯上。那是问题一。问题二则是，我无法控制感测器的敏感度。我无法将之调高或调低，我无法做到那一类的事情。我需要解决这个问题。问题一很容易解决， 在 eBay 和亚马逊网站上搜索我能用的注射器就可以了。然而，问题二需要更多的思考。
So this is where this factors in.So what a space-filling curve doesis it aims to take up all the area it can within one unit square.And by writing a computer program, you can have different iterationsof the different curve,which increasingly get close to one unit square,but never quite reaches there.So now I could control the thickness, the size,I could do whatever I want with it, and I could predict my results.So I started constructing my sensorsand testing them more rigorously,using money that I had gotten from previous science fair awards.Lastly, I had to connect this data in order to be read.So I interfaced it with a Bluetooth chip,which you can see here by the app screenshots on the right.And what this does is that anyone can monitor the progress of their wound,and it can be transmitted over a wireless connectionto the doctor, the patient or whoever needs it.
这就是这个因子出场的时候了。这个填满空间的曲线目的是要在一单位平方的面积中 尽可能占用所有的空间。透过撰写电脑程式， 就可以做到不同曲线的不同递回，曲线会越来越接近一单位平方，但永远不会达到这个目标。然后我就能控制浓度、大小，我能用它做任何我想做的事， 且我能预测结果。于是我开始建构我的感测器，并更严格地测试它们，用的钱是来自我以前 科展得奖的奖金。最后，我得要连结这些资料， 要能够读取它们。所以我用蓝芽晶片 为它做了一个界面，你们可以看到右手边的 应用程式画面截图。它的功能在于，任何人都可以 监控其伤口的进展状况，它能够透过无线连结来传输，传给医生、病人，或任何需要的人。
[Continued Testing and Refinement]
So in conclusion, my design was successful --however, science never ends.There’s always something to be done, something to be refined.So that’s what I’m currently in the process of doing.However, what I learned waswhat’s more important than the actual thing I designedis an attitude that I had taken on while doing this.And that attitude was,even though I’m a 14-year-old working in her garageon something that she doesn’t completely understand,I could still make a difference and contribute to the field.And that’s what inspired me to keep going,and I hope it inspires many others to also do work like thiseven though they’re not very sure about it.So I hope that’s a message that you all take on today.
结论是，我的设计是成功的——然而，科学没有终点。总是会有什么可以做、可以改良。所以，那是我目前正在进行的工作。然而，我所学到的事比我所设计出来的成品更重要，那就是我在做这工作时采用的态度。那种态度就是，虽然我只有十四岁， 且还是在车库里工作，做的是我不完全了解的事，但我仍然能够为这个领域 带来不同，做出贡献。正是这一点，鼓舞我继续走下去，我希望它也能鼓舞 许多其他人也来这么做，即使他们并不是很有信心。希望大家今天能带着这个讯息离开。