世界上第一个核聚变反应堆已完成50% 分享到
World’s First Nuclear Fusion Reactor 50 Percent Complete 2018-01-0353444

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At the Geneva Superpower Summit in November 1985, American President Ronald Reagan met with the Soviet Union’s General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev.
在1985年11月的日内瓦超级大国首脑会议上,美国总统罗纳德·里根会见了苏联总书记米哈伊尔·戈尔巴乔夫。
The two leaders discussed international diplomacy and the arms race.Gorbachev proposed to Reagan an idea for an international project to develop fusion energy for peaceful purposes.
两位领导人对国际外交和军备竞赛展开了讨论。戈尔巴乔夫向里根提出了一个国际计划,本着和平的目的开发核聚变能源。
One year later, international leaders reached an agreement: the Soviet Union, Japan, the U.S., and the European Union would work together to design a large international fusion center.Later, other countries joined the agreement.
一年后,国际领导人达成了协议:苏联、日本、美国和欧盟将共同设计一个大型国际核聚变中心。后来,其他国家也加入了这项协议。
Some 30 years after Gorbachev and Reagan’s meeting, the project is continuing.The facility, named the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, or ITER, is often called the most complicated scientific instrument in the world.
在戈尔巴乔夫和里根会面后的30年后,这个项目仍在继续。该设施被命名为国际热核实验反应堆,简称ITER,被称为世界上最复杂的科学设施。
ITER is being built in southern France.And now, the director of the ITER project says the facility is 50% complete and on track to produce low-cost energy.This energy will come from what is basically a very small star at ITER’s core.Although small, it will burn 10 times hotter than the Sun.
ITER目前在法国南部建造。现在,ITER项目的负责人说,该设施已经完成了50%,并有望产出低成本能源。这种能源来自于ITER核心的一颗很小的星型物。它虽然小,但比太阳热10倍。
All of the nuclear reactors in the world depend on nuclear fission to create energy.Nuclear fission uses the splitting of uranium atoms to create a lot of heat.The process creates a lot of energy but also dangerous radiation.
世界上所有的核反应堆都依靠核裂变来制造能量。核裂变利用铀原子的分裂来产生大量的热量。这个过程会产生大量的能量,同时也会产生危险的辐射。
ITER is different.It aims to use the power of nuclear fusion – the forceful joining of hydrogen atoms to create helium atoms.The fusion process releases a lot of heat but very little radiation.
ITER则不同。它的目标是利用核聚变的力量——将氢原子强有力的结合起来制造氦原子。聚变过程释放出大量的热量,但辐射很少。
The biggest problem is that nuclear fusion requires conditions similar to the core of a star – although on a much smaller scale.
最大的问题是核聚变需要的条件与恒星的核心类似——尽管规模要小得多。
Bernard Bigot is the director of ITER.He describes the extreme conditions scientists must create for fusion to take place:
伯纳德·比戈是ITER的主管。他说科学家必须为核聚变创造极端的条件:
“The plasma will be at 150 million degrees.Very little quantity, very small quantity of matter, only 2 grams of hydrogen but with very high temperature.And we need to confine this plasma in order that is could fuse, which means collide and produce new atoms.”
“等离子体的温度将达到1.5亿度。非常少、非常小的物质,只有2克的氢气,但是温度很高。我们需要把等离子体限制在可以融合的状态下,这意味着碰撞产生新的原子。
Scientists are building electromagnets nearly 300 thousand times stronger than earth’s magnetic field.These electromagnets will help keep the superhot plasma in the center of a tube.
科学家们正在建造比地球磁场强近30万倍的电磁铁。这些电磁铁将让过热的等离子体处在一个管道的中心。
The job of building ITER is so huge that it requires the cooperation of 36 countries.The European Union is covering 45 percent of the cost.The final price will likely be more than $26 billion.
建造ITER的工作非常巨大,需要36个国家的合作。欧盟承担了45%的费用。最后花费可能会超过260亿美元。
The U.S. covers about nine percent of the total cost.But, proposed budget cuts would reduce U.S. financing by half.However, President Donald Trump has asked his administration to reconsider the budget cuts.
美国承担了约总成本的9%。但是,预算削减将使美国的融资减少一半。不过,特朗普总统已要求政府重新考虑预算削减的问题。
If financing is not reduced, the first plasma ignition at ITER may happen as soon as 2025.The current plan is for full power production by 2035.
如果融资没有减少,ITER的第一个等离子点火可能会在2025年进行。目前的计划是到2035年实现全电力生产。
I’m John Russell.
我是约翰·拉塞尔。

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