研究:美国的非洲移民也是高学历人才 分享到
Study Finds Africans Among Best Educated US Immigrants 2018-05-0592874

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More than 2 million immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa live in the United States.A new study from the Pew Research Center finds that they are, on average, college-educated and employed.In fact, they are more likely than native-born Americans to have pursued advanced degrees.And they are employed at about the same rates as the general population.
美国有200多万移民来自撒哈拉以南的非洲。皮尤研究中心的一项新研究发现,平均来看,他们都受过大学教育,也都有工作。事实上,他们比土生土长的美国人更有可能追求更高学历。他们就业率和普通人群差不多。
The study is important for several reasons.First, it shows that most sub-Saharan Africans living in the U.S. do not fit a stereotype of a struggling, out-of-work person with little schooling.
这项研究之所以重要,有几个原因。首先,它表明美国大多数撒哈拉以南的非洲人并不是生活艰辛、失业、没有受过多少教育这种死板的形象。
The study also shows that the sub-Saharan African immigrant population is different in the U.S. than in Europe.For example, in the U.S. more than two out of three sub-Saharan African immigrants have at least some college education.In Britain, half do.In France, one in three do.And in Italy, only one in ten has had higher education.
该研究还表明,在美国,来自撒哈拉以南非洲地区的移民人口与欧洲不同。例如,在美国,三分之二以上的撒哈拉以南非洲移民至少接受过某种大学教育。在英国只有一半。在法国仅有三分之一。而在意大利,只有十分之一的人接受过高等教育。
In addition, sub-Saharan African immigrants in the U.S. are more likely than those in Europe to be working.The Pew study found that employment rates were about equal to the general population in each country.About 93 percent of sub-Saharan African immigrants in the U.S. are working, compared to 92 percent in Britain and 80 percent in Italy.
此外,在美国,撒哈拉以南的非洲移民比欧洲的移民就业人数更多。皮尤研究发现,每个国家的就业率都与一般人口持平。在美国,大约93%的撒哈拉以南非洲移民有工作,而英国和意大利的这一比例分别为92%和80%。
Monica Anderson is a researcher at Pew and one of the writers of the report.She told VOA that the research team wanted to compare the backgrounds of African immigrants in the U.S. to those in Europe.
莫妮卡·安德森是皮尤研究中心的研究员,也是这份报告的作者之一。她对美国之音说,该研究小组希望将美国与欧洲的非洲移民的背景进行比较。
“What we found is that the sub-Saharan African immigrant population [in the U.S.] really stands out, and that they are a very highly educated group,”Anderson said over the phone.
“我们发现,(在美国),撒哈拉以南非洲的移民人口真的很出众,他们是一些受过高等教育的群体。”安德森在电话访谈中说道。
The Pew study is based on 2015 data from the U.S. Census Bureau and Eurostat’s Labor Force Survey.
皮尤中心的这项研究是根据2015年美国人口普查局和欧盟统计局的劳动力调查数据得出的。
One reason for different backgrounds among sub-Saharan African immigrants is proximity, Anderson said –in other words, how close things are to each other.Europe is much easier to reach than the U.S. for low-income Africans.They can come by boat or other ways, whether or not the travel is safe.Hundreds of thousands have risked crossing the Mediterranean Sea to go to Italy or Greece.
安德森说,撒哈拉以南非洲移民背景不同的一个原因是近便程度,也就是事物之间的距离远近。对于低收入的非洲人来说,欧洲比美国更容易到达。他们可以乘船或其他交通工具,无论是否安全。成千上万的人冒险穿越地中海前往意大利或希腊。
In contrast, African immigrants coming to the U.S. often have the money to travel by plane, as well as permission to enter the country once they arrive.
相比之下,来美国的非洲移民通常有钱坐飞机旅行,而且一旦到达美国,他们就可以进入美国。
They come to the U.S. for different reasons – to study, for employment opportunities, through family reunification programs.Some come to the U.S. as asylum seekers and refugees.
他们来到美国是出于不同的原因——为了学习,为了就业机会,或是以家庭团聚的名义。一些人来到美国是为了寻求庇护,也有的是难民。
The State Department said that in 2015, Africans made up almost half of those invited to ask for immigrant visas through a lottery program.
美国国务院表示,2015年,通过抽奖申请移民签证(签证抽奖)的人数中,非洲人几乎占到一半。
And the Department of Homeland Security reported that in 2016, about one-third of refugees approved to enter the U.S. were from Africa.
美国国土安全部报告称,2016年,约有三分之一获准进入美国的难民来自非洲。
But previous research found that higher education and employment levels do not always mean a higher quality of life for African immigrants in the United States.
但之前的研究发现,高等教育和就业水平并不意味着非洲移民在美国的生活质量更高。
In 2015, researchers at Pew looked at black immigrants from Africa, the Caribbean, Central America and South America.Researchers found that that their median household income was more than $8,000 lower than the U.S. average.
2015年,皮尤研究中心的研究人员调查了来自非洲、加勒比海、中美洲和南美洲的黑人移民。研究人员发现,他们的家庭收入中间值比美国平均水平低8000多美元。
They also owned homes at a rate less than the overall U.S. population, and were more likely to live below the poverty line.
他们拥有住房的速度也低于美国总人口,而且更有可能生活在贫困线以下。
The findings suggest that even though sub-Saharan African immigrants have high education and employment rates,they may not have all the opportunities other groups enjoy.
研究结果表明,尽管撒哈拉以南非洲地区的移民拥有较高的教育水平和就业率,但他们可能无法享有其他群体的所有机会。
I’m Dorothy Gundy.
我是多萝西·甘迪。

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