挪威研究:人们的智商近几十年有所下降 分享到
Norwegian Study: IQ Scores Dropped for Decades 2018-07-0671734

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A major study carried out in Norway suggests IQ scores among men there have been falling since the mid-1970s.
挪威进行的一项研究表明,自20世纪70年代中期以来,男性的智商一直在下降。
The study involved more than 700,000 men born to Norwegian couples between 1962 and 1991. The research was carried out by Oslo’s Ragnar Frisch Center for Economic Research. Results were published last week in the U.S.-based scientific journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
该研究涉及1962年至1991年间挪威出生的700,000多名男性。该研究由奥斯陆的拉格纳弗里希经济研究中心发起。研究结果于上周发表在美国科学杂志——美国国家科学院院刊上。
The men were given tests around age 18 to measure IQ - or intelligence quotient – as part of required military service in Norway. IQ tests are designed to measure intelligence based on areas such as vocabulary knowledge, verbal and non-verbal reasoning skills, and working memory.
这些男子在18岁左右时接受了智商测试,这项测试为挪威军事服务的一部分。智商测试主要测试词汇知识、口头和非口语推理能力以及工作记忆等方面的内容。
In the Norwegian study, results showed the average IQ score increased about three percent for men born between 1962 and 1975 – from 99.5 to 102.3.
研究结果显示,1962年至1975年间出生的男性平均智商为99.5到102.3,提高约3%。
But the scores began dropping for men born after 1975. By 1989, the average IQ score had returned to 99.4.
但是1975年以后出生的男性智商开始下降。到1989年,平均智商值跌回99.4。
The study is related to something known as the Flynn effect. This is the idea that if the same IQ tests are given to people born at different points in time, the scores will generally rise.
该研究与弗林效应有关,即如果对在不同时间点出生的人进行相同的智商测试,那么分数通常会提高。
Ole Rogeberg is with the Frisch Center and was a lead researcher on the study. He told VOA the Flynn effect showed a clear increase in IQ scores during the 20th century throughout the Western world. Researchers found the IQ increases during this time period happened too fast to be related to genetics. They said the higher scores were instead caused by environmental factors. Among possible factors were better teaching and learning methods, improvements in test-taking skills and healthier eating.
奥勒·罗杰博格是弗里希中心的首席研究员。他告诉美国之音的记者,弗林效应显示,20世纪的整个西方,智商值明显提高。研究人员发现,在此期间智商的迅速提高,并不与遗传因素相关。他们说智商高是由于环境的因素。例如较好的教学和学习方法、考试技巧的提高和更健康的饮食。
Rogeberg said that in the new study, he wanted to examine possible causes for the steady drop in IQ scores. To rule out genetics, he attempted to find similarities between brothers.
罗杰博格称,在这项新研究中,他想研究智商持续下降的原因。他试图找出兄弟间的相似之处,从而排除遗传因素。
“Because on average, the genes that the first born and the second born and the third born get, they will be relatively similar. There’s no reason to expect that one sibling gets better genes just because he’s the first or second child.”
“平均而言,第一个出生的孩子和第二个、第三个出生的孩子的基因相对类似。兄弟姐妹间不会因为他是第一个还是第二个出生而具有更好的基因。”
He concluded that external factors probably influenced the scores more than genetics. However, he added that the study did not provide any information about specific kinds of environmental causes for the lower IQ scores. But he said researchers are considering a number of theories.
他总结道,外部因素可能比遗传因素更能影响智商。但是,他补充说,该研究没有提供任何关于低智商的具体环境因素。但他说研究人员正在研究一些理论来找出原因。
“It may be due to changes in the educational system or that it reflects a change in the media environment – if people used to read books more, but now they’re watching television more or going on the internet more.”
“这可能是由于教育体制的变化,或者媒体环境的变化——人们过去读很多书,但现在他们更多地看电视或上网。”
Rogeberg looks forward to results of additional studies that can support his findings. He says more research is needed to help explain all the reasons behind changes in IQ scores.
罗杰博格希望有更多研究结果可以支持他的发现。他需要更多的研究来解释智商变化原因。
“It’s difficult to compare the results across time, and whether it actually reflects a change in some underlying intelligence or whether it reflects differences in how we have been trained to use our intelligence to solve different kinds of tasks.”
“不同时间得出的结果很难进行比较,它是否真实地反映了某些潜在智力的变化,是否反映了人们如何训练利用智力来解决不同任务的差异。”
In any case, Rogeberg says he believes the reasoning and critical thinking skills measured by intelligence tests will always be important. He notes that humans will still need to process information, even as technology and artificial intelligence become a bigger part of people’s lives.
无论如何,罗杰博格认为智商测试反映出的推理和批判性思维很重要。他指出,即使技术和人工智能成为人们生活的重要组成部分,人类仍然需要处理信息。
“You have to be able to reason your way through the world as you live it,” he said. “And I don’t think these skills are going to lose their relevance. But the way they are relevant might change.”
“你需要能够通过你所在世界来进行推理,”他说。“我认为这些技能仍然有用。但它们是否具有相关性可能会改变。”
I’m Bryan Lynn.
布莱恩·林恩为您播报。

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