手机改善巴基斯坦农业 分享到
Mobile Phones Improve Farming in Pakistan 2017-07-1241753

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Mobile phones and satellites are becoming valuable farming tools in Pakistan.
手机和卫星日益成为巴基斯坦最重要的耕作工具。
A new program there uses satellite information to estimate how much water a field needs. The satellite then sends this information by text message to farmers’ mobile phones.
该国的一项新项目利用卫星信息判断一片农田需要多少水。然后卫星将信息以短信形式发送到农民的手机上。
The program’s aim is to prevent the farmers from overwatering crops. A 2013 report from the Asian Development Bank says Pakistan has some of the most severe water problems in the world. The country’s water availability is similar to Syria’s, where a lack of rainfall has intensified civil war.
该项目旨在帮助农民避免过度灌溉庄稼。亚洲发展银行2013年的一份报告中指出,巴基斯坦面临世界上最严重的水问题。该国家的水资源可利用量和内战因缺水而愈演愈烈的叙利亚相当。
Pakistan is only able to store water that can last up to 30 days. That is far below the recommended storage amount of 1,000 days.
巴基斯坦的储水量只够用最多30天。远远低于1000天的推荐储水量。
Several issues have led to Pakistan’s water crisis. They include climate changes, a growing population, local water mismanagement and a greater demand on farmers.
巴基斯坦水危机有几大原因。其中包括气候变化,人口增长,当地水资源管理不善以及农民需求增加。
Many fear the water crisis could weaken relations between Pakistan and India. The two countries share the Indus River.
很多人都担心缺水危机会削弱巴基斯坦和印度之间的关系。两国共享印度河。
Many older Pakistani farmers received agricultural training several years ago, when water was more readily available. They know the risks that come with underwatering crops.
巴基斯坦的很多老农民几年前接受过农业培训,那时水资源还唾手可得。他们知道该危机和水生作物有关。
But using too much water can reduce crop harvests.
但使用太多水会造成粮食减产。
The Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources found that rice farmers were using more than three times as much water as they needed.
巴基斯坦水资源研究委员会发现稻农使用的水是他们实际需要的三倍多。
The council asked the Sustainability, Satellites, Water, and Environment research group, at the University of Washington, to get involved. The council wanted the research group to use science to help inform irrigation choices.
该委员会邀请了可持续性、卫星、水和环境研究团队该团队是由华盛顿大学的参与想让该研究团队利用科学帮助传达灌溉知识。
Pakistan’s program started with 700 farmers in the spring of 2016. By January, 10,000 farmers were receiving text messages with a water amount advisory. For example, one message read: "Dear farmer friend, we would like to inform you that the irrigation need for your banana crop was 2 inches during the past week."
2016年春天该项目在700名农民中试行。截止至一月,一万名农民可以接收到用水量建议的短信。例如,一条短信这样写道:“亲爱的农民朋友,我们想要通知你,过去一周你的香蕉作物需要的灌溉量是2英寸。”
The messages come from a fully-automated system. It uses publicly available satellite information. It also uses models to compute how much water each farmer needs to irrigate.
该信息由全自动化的系统发出。该系统利用公开卫星信息。还利用模型计算出每名农民灌溉时所需的用水量。
The council plans to expand the program for use across the country, and expects millions of farmers to participate. But first the system must be reviewed.
该委员会计划将该项目拓展至全国,希望数百万的农民可以参与进来。但是首先该系统需要进行评估。
The researchers want to know how easy it is for farmers to use, and how many follow the irrigation advisories. They also want to know how accurate it is and whether it saves farmers money.
研究人员想知道怎么样让农民方便使用,有多少人会遵循灌溉建议。他们还想知道该系统有多精准,是否能帮农民省钱。
They are collecting responses from farmers over the phone.
他们在手机上收集农民们的反馈。
Faisal Hossain is with the University of Washington. He says he has not seen a report on the results yet. However, the group heard from one farmer in the program who said he was able to get about 700 kilograms more wheat than his neighbor. The farmer said he believes the irrigation advisories made this possible.
费萨尔.侯赛因是华盛顿大学的一员。他说他还未看到结果的报告。然而该组织从参与项目的一位农民处得知,他能比邻居多收获700公斤的小麦。该农民称,他相信是灌溉建议使之成为可能。
Expanding the program may be difficult. The council may need to work harder to persuade farmers to trust the technology. Those working on smaller farms may not feel comfortable depending on mobile phone technology.
拓展该项目也许很难。该委员会需要更加努力地说服农民相信技术。那些耕种面积小的农民也许会对依赖手机技术感到不适应。
Mobile phones are already very common in Pakistan, however. And last year the Punjab government announced that it would give out 5 million smartphones to farmers.
但是手机在巴基斯坦已经很常见了。去年旁遮普省政府宣布要给农民发放五百万部手机。
I’m Alice Bryant.
爱丽丝.布莱恩特为您报道。

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