气候变化可能会将非洲干旱的萨赫勒地区变绿 分享到
Climate Change May Turn Africa’s Dry Sahel Green 2017-07-1645497

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The Sahel is one of driest areas in Africa, but that may change if Earth’s surface temperatures rise more than two degrees Celsius.
萨赫勒地区是非洲最干旱的地区之一,但是,如果地球的表面温度上升超过2摄氏度的话,这一切可能会有所改变。
Scientists say the Sahel could turn greener, with more plant life, because the higher temperatures would lead to more rainfall.
科学家说,萨赫勒地区可能会变得更绿,拥有更多的植物,因为更高的温度会导致更多的降雨。
More than 100 million people live in the Sahel.It stretches coast to coast—from Mauritania and Mali in western Africa to Sudan and Eritrea in the east.The Sahel extends to the southern edge of the Sahara desert.
超过1亿人居住在萨赫勒地区。它横跨东西海岸,从非洲西部的毛里塔尼亚和马里,一直到东部的苏丹和特里亚。萨赫勒地区还延伸到了撒哈拉沙漠的南部边缘。
In recent years, the area has experienced worsening extreme weather.That includes more droughts—periods of little or no rainfall.
近几年来,该地区经历了不断恶化的极端天气。这包括更多的干旱——很少或根本没有降雨的时期。
Some scientists are very concerned about pollution from greenhouse gases—gases that trap heat in Earth’s atmosphere.They warn that if such gases continue to increase with no limits, rising temperatures could change weather systems in the Sahel and other areas.Scientists say this is possible if surface temperatures rise more than two degrees Celsius above average temperatures before the industrial revolution.
一些科学家非常关注温室气体的污染,这些气体阻碍了地球大气中的热量散发。他们警告说,如果这种气体继续不受限制地增加,不断上升的温度可能会改变在萨赫勒地区和其他地区的天气系统。科学家们表示,这是有可能的。如果地球表面温度比工业革命前的平均温度高出2摄氏度以上。
Some weather models predict a small increase in rainfall for the Sahel.But there is a risk that the entire weather pattern will change by the end of the century.That is the opinion of researchers at the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research.
一些气候模型预测萨赫勒地区降雨量会小幅增加。但是,到本世纪末,整个天气模式都有可能发生变化。这是波茨坦气候影响研究所研究人员的观点。
The size of the possible change is “mind-boggling,” says the institute’s Anders Levermann.“This is one of the very few elements in the Earth system that we might witness tipping soon.”Levermann also works for Columbia University in New York City.
该研究所的安德斯·莱弗曼说,可能发生的这种变化的规模是“令人难以置信的”。“这是地球系统中很少有的现象之一,我们可能很快就会见证到一场倾覆。”也为纽约市哥伦比亚大学工作的他表示,
If the Sahel receives more rainfall, it will mean more water for agriculture, industry and personal use.But in the first few years leading up to more rain, the area is likely to experience very erratic weather.That may mean extremely dry periods followed by destructive floods, the researchers said.
如果萨赫勒地区有更多的降雨,就意味着农业、工业和个人可用水会增多。但是在即将迎来更多雨水的最初几年里,这个地区可能会经历非常不稳定的天气。研究人员说,这可能意味着先是极端干旱时期,接着是毁灭性的洪水。
They added that because it is hard to know what will happen when, it makes it hard for people to plan for these changes.
他们补充说,因为很难知道什么时候会发生什么,这使得人们很难为这些变化做规划。
Levermann said any extreme change would create a huge challenge to the Sahel.More than 100 million people who may be affected already face many “instabilities, including war,” he said.
莱弗曼说,任何极端变化都会给萨赫勒地区带来巨大挑战。他说,1亿多名可能受到影响的人已经面临许多“不稳定,包括战争”。
The area faces many conflicts, including some driven by groups such as Boko Haram and al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb.
该地区面临多种冲突,包括一些由博科圣地组织和伊斯兰马格里布的基地组织这类团伙造成的冲突。
The researchers studied rainfall in the Sahel during the months of July, August and September.That is the time of year when the area gets most of its rain.
这些研究人员研究了萨赫勒地区七月、八月和九月的降雨。这是一年中该地区雨水最多的时候。
There are a number of possible outcomes, which depend on the climate that eventually develops... and whether people in the Sahel are prepared for changes, said scientist Jacob Schewe.“Climate change from burning fossil fuels really has the power to shake things up,” he told the Thomson Reuters Foundation.
科学家雅各布·谢尔韦说,可能有多种结果,这取决于最终形成的气候……以及萨赫勒地区人们是否对变化做好准备。他对汤姆森路透基金会表示:“燃烧化石燃料导致的气候变化确实有能力撼动形势。”
A report on the study was published this month in Earth System Dynamics, a journal of the European Geosciences Union.
该研究报告本月发表在欧洲地球科学联合会的《地球系统动力学》杂志上。
I’m Dorothy Gundy.
多萝西·甘地为您播报。

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