管控野马种群 分享到
Managing the Wild Horse Population 2017-08-0951462

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Everyone, including members of Congress and Native American tribes, wants fewer wild horses on Western lands and tribal reservations. But there is little agreement on how the number should be reduced.
包括国会成员和美国土著部落在内的每个人都希望减少西部地区和部落自然保护区的马匹数量。但对于减少马匹数量的方式并没有达成一致的观点。
The wild horses come from horses that were brought to America from Spain in the 16th century.
这些野马来自于那些16世纪从西班牙带到美国的马。
By 1971, the number of wild horses had dropped sharply. So Congress passed a law to save them. Since then, the number of wild horses has increased three times in size. Experts predict there will be 115,000 wild horses by 2020.
到1971年,野马的数量大量减少。所以国会通过了一项法律保护它们。从那以后,野马的数量规模增加了三倍。专家预测,到2020年将会有11.5万匹野马。
An average adult wild horse eats more than two-and-a-half kilograms of grass and drinks 75 liters of water a day.
一匹成年野马平均每天需要吃掉2.5kg草,喝掉75升水。
As a result, non-native plants begin growing in the affected areas. The horses’ actions have also caused soil erosion around water sources, threatening water quality.
结果就是,在一些受影响区域,非原生植物开始生长。野马的行为还导致了水源附近的水土流失,对水质造成了威胁。
Gillian Lyons is a wildlife expert at The Humane Society of the United States.
吉莉安·里昂是美国人道协会的一位野生动植物专家。
She said, “Originally, when the 1971 act passed, it allowed the [Bureau of Land Management] to destroy healthy horses…if populations grew too large.”
她说,“起初,1971年《法院法》通过之后,允许【土地管理局】去消灭健康的马匹······如果它们的数量太过庞大的话。”
Since 1994, except for one year, the BLM has been prevented from destroying wild horses. The agency now captures and places them in holding facilities. A few horses are adopted, but not many. It costs about $50 million a year to care for the captured animals.
自1994年以来,除了某一年以外,土地管理局一直被禁止消灭野马。现在土地管理局开始捕捉野马并将它们圈养在临时设施之内。一些马被领养走了,但是数量并不多。饲养这些马匹一年需要花费5000万美元。
President Donald Trump wants to cut the BLM budget by $10 million in 2018. If Congress approves the plan, the BLM would have to find other ways to manage horse populations.
唐纳德·特朗普总统想要从土地管理局2018年的预算中减少1000万美元。如果国会通过了这个计划,土地管理局就不得不想其他的办法控制野马种群。
“They’re going to do that in a couple of ways,” said Lyons. “One is by reducing any use of fertility control, which they use barely any of now. And the other way is by getting rid of horses in holding facilities.”
“他们将会通过两种方式控制野马种群,”里昂说。“一是通过减少节育措施的使用,现在任何一种措施都不再投入使用了。二是通过将马匹集中到临时设施,减少马匹数量。”
Recently, a House committee voted to permit the BLM to kill the horses. But a Senate committee voted against another bill that would lift the ban on horse killing.
最近,一个内务委员会投票允许土地管理局捕杀野马。但是一个参议院委员会则对另一个取消捕杀马匹的法令投了反对票。
Native American tribes have struggled with the problem for years. Some support capturing the animals. But others, including leaders of the tribes, say the animals should be treated well and not killed.
美国土著部落已经被这个问题折磨多年。一些人支持捕捉这些马匹。但是另一些人,包括部落的首领在内,则表示这些动物应当受到良好对待而不是被捕杀。
The Northwest Tribal Horse Coalition is made up of five small groups and tribes in Idaho, Oregon and Washington. It says in the short term controlling the number of wild horse births will not stop overgrazing. It supports the slaughter of horses at “humane facilities.”
西北马部落联盟是由爱达荷州、俄勒冈州和华盛顿州的五个小群体和部落组成。该联盟称短期内对野马出生率的控制可能不会阻止过渡放牧。联盟支持“人道设施”内的马匹捕杀。
An estimated 48,000 wild horses live on the Navajo Nation’s 7,000 square kilometers in Arizona, Utah and New Mexico.
大约4.8万匹野马生活在亚利桑那州、犹他州和新墨西哥州的纳瓦霍部落7000平方公里的土地上。
Duane “Chili” Yazzie is the president of the Nation in Shiprock.
杜安·“智利”·亚奇是希普罗克一个部落的首领。
Yazzie has started a horse capture program he considers more humane. The program would euthanize sick and old wild horses and sterilize healthy ones before returning them to the wild. He is also looking to train them as farm animals.
亚奇开启了一项马匹捕捉项目,他认为这样会更人道一些。该项目会对老弱病残野马进行安乐死,对健康的马匹进行绝育后再放生。他还期望将这些马匹训练成家畜。
I’m Jonathan Evans.
我是乔纳森·埃文斯。

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