飓风是如何形成的? 分享到
How Do Hurricanes Form? 2017-09-1098426

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Three powerful ocean storms threaten the Caribbean, the coast of the southeastern United States and southeastern Mexico.
三大海洋强风暴席卷美国东南部和墨西哥东南部的加勒比海岸。
Hurricane Irma has struck Cuba and now threatens the state of Florida with strong winds and rain. The storm has caused deaths and widespread destruction on several Caribbean islands.
继飓风“厄玛”袭击古巴以来,强风和暴雨现在威胁着佛罗里达州。风暴已造成加勒比群岛数人伤亡,造成大范围的破坏。
Hurricane Katia is in the southern Gulf of Mexico. It is nearing Mexico’s eastern coast. And Hurricane Jose is gaining strength in the Atlantic Ocean.
飓风“凯蒂娅”在墨西哥湾南部徘徊。它靠近墨西哥东海岸。飓风“乔斯”也在大西洋积聚力量。
The three hurricanes come as the state of Texas recovers from Hurricane Harvey. The huge storm caused severe flooding and billions of dollars in damage in Houston, the country’s fourth-largest city.
德克萨斯州的飓风“哈维”刚撤退,三大飓风趁势来袭。飓风“哈维”已在美国第四大城市休斯顿带来严重的洪水,造成数十亿美元损失。
Hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean goes from June 1 to November 30. And the month of September is the peak of storm activity.
大西洋的飓风季从6月1日开始,持续到11月30日。9月是风暴的活动高峰。
Hurricanes are the most powerful storms in the Earth’s atmosphere. The storms have different names depending on where they take place. Scientists call all these storms tropical cyclones.
飓风是地球大气层最强的风暴。风暴根据发生的地区不同有不同的名称。科学家称这些都叫做热带气旋。
If the storms form over the Atlantic Ocean or eastern Pacific Ocean, they are called hurricanes. Storms that form in the western Pacific Ocean are known as typhoons. In the Indian Ocean, they are called cyclones.
大西洋或太平洋东部形成的风暴叫做飓风。太平洋西部形成的风暴叫做台风。印度洋形成的风暴叫做气旋。
Although they have different names, all these storms form in the same way.
风暴尽管名称不同,但是形成方式相同。
Scientists at the American space agency NASA describe tropical cyclones as huge weather “engines” that use warm, moist air as fuel. They can only form over warm, tropical waters near the equator.
美国宇航局NASA的科学家将热带气旋描述为一个巨大的天气“发动机”,它的燃料是暖湿空气。热带气旋只能在赤道附近的温暖的热带水域形成。
A tropical cyclone develops when warm moist air near the surface of the ocean rises. This creates an area of unusually low air pressure.
海洋表面的暖湿气体上升形成气旋。这时海洋处于不正常低压。
Higher-pressure air from surrounding areas pushes in to take the place of the warm, rising air. It becomes warmer and moister and rises, too.
海洋周围的区域气压高,侵占了温暖上升的气流。周围气流也变得温暖、湿润,开始上升。
The rising, moist air goes high into the atmosphere, where temperatures are low. This creates wind. The moisture forms clouds. The developing weather system begins to spin because of the Earth’s rotation.
上升的暖湿气流到达温度很低的大气层。就形成了风。潮湿的气体形成了云。不断变化的天气系统随着地球的转动开始旋转。
As the storm spins faster and faster, what is called an “eye” of the storm develops at its center. This is a calm area of very low pressure. Higher pressure air from above flows down into the eye.
风暴旋转越来越快,中心形成了“台风眼”。台风眼十分平静,气压很低。上空高气压的空气被卷入台风眼中。
When wind speeds reach about 63 kilometers per hour, meteorologists say a tropical storm has formed. When winds in the storm are measured at 119 kilometers per hour or above, a tropical storm officially becomes a category one “tropical cyclone,” or in the Western Hemisphere, a hurricane.
当风力增加到每小时63公里时,气象学家认为这就形成了热带风暴。当风力达到每小时119公里以上时,热带风暴就可以划分为一级“热带气旋”,或者叫做西半球的“飓风”。
Meteorologists use measurements of wind speed to place tropical cyclones in categories. When a hurricane’s wind speed reaches 155 kilometers an hour, it is called category two.
气象学家利用风速将热带气旋分级。当飓风的风速达到每小时155公里时,就成为二级飓风。
The categories go up to category five, the most dangerous and catastrophic storm. A category-five storm has wind speeds measured at over 250 kilometers per hour. They can cause a storm surge, or a rise in water levels of more than five meters.
飓风最高级可达到五级,这一级最危险、破坏力最大。五级风暴风速达到每小时250公里。它可以造成风暴潮,或者海平面上升至5米多。
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, or NOAA, operates two satellites that track weather and storms in the eastern Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. NOAA provides maps from the (GOES) satellites online.
美国国家海洋与大气管理局(NOAA)利用两颗卫星记录太平洋东部和大西洋的天气和风暴。该局根据(静止环境观测卫星)网站提供地图。
I’m Mario Ritter.
我是马里奥·里特。

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