美国经济学家荣获2017诺贝尔经济学奖 分享到
American Wins Nobel Prize in Economics 2017-10-1184976

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American economist Richard Thaler has won the 2017 Nobel Prize for Economics.
美国经济学家理查德.塞勒荣获2017年诺贝尔经济学奖。
Thaler was recognized for his work as a behavioral economist. That means he studies the reasons behind the economic decisions people make.
塞勒作为行为经济学家得到认可。他研究人们做出金融决定背后的原因。
Thaler received the prize partly for his research into why people often make irrational financial decisions. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences announced the $1.1 million prize on Monday.
塞勒获此殊荣部分归功于他对人们为什么会做出不理智的金融决定的研究。瑞典皇家科学院周一揭晓了该奖项获奖者,并提供110万美元的奖金。
Speaking of the prize money, Thaler told reporters in Chicago after the announcement, "I will spend it as irrationally as possible."
提到这笔奖金,塞勒在芝加哥接受采访时说,“我会不理智地将它花掉。”
The award committee said Thaler explored "the consequences of limited rationality, social preferences, and lack of self-control." It said the American economist’s work has shown how human qualities affect people’s individual decisions and the movements of financial markets.
诺贝尔奖项委员会表示,塞勒探究了“有限理性、社会偏好和缺乏自制的后果”。委员会表示塞勒的研究展示了人类特性如何影响个人决定和金融市场的动向。
Thaler developed the theory of "mental accounting." It describes how people create separate accounts in their minds to try to simplify financial decision-making.
塞勒在经济学中提出了“心理账户”的理论。该理论描述了人们如何在脑中构建一个个账户,以简化金融决定。
He described how this can lead to less rational financial decisions like saving for a vacation while paying high credit card interest.
塞勒指出这会导致做出不太理性的金融决定,如存钱去旅行,同时要支付高额的信用卡利息。
His research, Bloomberg noted, showed that people often choose short-term pleasures, which is why many people fail to plan and save for old age.
彭博社指出,塞勒的研究展示了人们会选择短期的快乐,“这也是为什么很多人缺乏对老年的计划和存款。”
The Reuters said Thaler’s research showed that such traits "as lack of self-control and fear of losing what you already have" can cause people to make bad short-term decisions.
路透社表示他的研究展示了,一些特性,“如缺乏自制和害怕失去的特点”会导致人们做出不正确的短期决定。
One of those, Thaler noted, was keeping stock shares that have lost value or selling them too soon when they have gained value.
塞勒指出,其中一点就是一直持有亏损的股票份额或在增值后迅速抛售。
Thaler helped develop the "nudge" theory. It is the idea that small incentives can influence people to make good decisions. He said people should be permitted to make their own choices, but society "should actively try to guide individuals in the right direction."
塞勒提出了一种“助推”理论。该理论认为一些小的鼓励措施就会影响人们做出更好的决定。他说允许人们自己做决定,但社会“应该主动引导个人向正确的方向迈进。”
Cass Sunstein and Thaler wrote about the idea in the 2008 book "Nudge."
凯斯.桑斯坦和塞勒在2008年出版的《助推》一书中描述了该理论。
The theory has been used by political candidates as they work to influence voters and government officials seeking to make changes in society.
这一理论被政治候选人使用,以影响选民和政府官员来改变社会。
Other areas also interested Thaler. He studied fairness. He found that people can accept increasing prices if the costs of many things are going up. But he found that they strongly disapprove of companies that raise prices simply because of high demand for one product.
塞勒还对其他领域感兴趣。他还研究公平。他发现如果很多东西的成本都在涨,人们就可以接受价格增长。但他发现人们强烈反对公司仅仅因为某一件产品的需求增长而提高价格。
Bloomberg called Thaler’s Nobel Prize "a reward for 40 years of work spent studying human bias and temptation."
彭博社称塞勒的诺贝尔奖项“是对40年来人类偏好和诱惑的研究的回报。”
Thaler is considered one of the first behavioral economists. His field, once criticized, has grown in popularity among economists over the last 10 years.
塞勒被视为行为经济学家的鼻祖之一。他的研究领域曾经备受指摘,但近十年中受到经济学家们的追捧。
The economist even briefly appeared in the 2010 movie, "The Big Short," about the global financial crisis.
塞勒还曾出现在2010年的电影《大卖空》中,该电影讲述全球金融危机。
Thaler is a professor of behavioral science and economics at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business.
塞勒是芝加哥大学布斯商学院行为科学和经济学的教授。
The economics prize was created in 1968 in memory of Alfred Nobel after his death. Since then, 79 individuals have received the prize. The first woman winner was ElinorOstrom in 2009.
诺贝尔经济学奖创立与1968年,纪念已逝的阿尔弗雷德.诺贝尔。自那以后,有79人获得该奖项。2009年埃莉诺.奥斯特罗姆成为首位获此殊荣的女性。
American have received about half of the Nobel Prizes for economics.
诺贝尔经济学奖一半都由美国人获得。
I’m Mario Ritter.
马里奥.瑞特为您报道。

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