蒂卡姆西:对抗美国扩张的部落首领 分享到
Tecumseh: Tribal Leader Who Fought American Expansion 2017-11-1367595

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Tecumseh was a leader of the Shawnee Tribe in the early 1800s.He led the Shawnee and other tribes in fighting American expansion into what is now the Northwestern United States.In the end, however, their efforts failed.
蒂卡姆西是19世纪早期肖尼部落的领袖。他带领肖尼部落和其他部落对抗美国扩张进入现在的美国西北部。然而,最终,他们的努力失败了。
Tecumseh was born in western Ohio around 1768.He grew up during a period of endless warfare, as non-native settlers moved inland from the Atlantic Coast.
蒂卡姆西1768年左右出生在俄亥俄州西部。随着非本地居民从大西洋海岸向内地迁移,他在无休止的战争期间长大。
The Shawnee had once lived in woodlands east of the Mississippi River.But by the late 1700s, they had been forced to move to what are today the states of Ohio and Indiana.
肖尼部落曾住在密西西比河以东的林地。但到18世纪后期,他们被迫迁移到今天的俄亥俄州和印第安纳州。
The Eastern Shawnee Tribe’s website notes that Tecumseh’s father died in a battle with a Virginia militia in 1774.The boy was left to be raised by his older brother, who trained him as a warrior.
东肖尼部落的网站指出,蒂卡姆西的父亲1774年死在了与弗吉尼亚州的民兵战斗中,于是这个男孩的哥哥把他拉扯大并把他训练成了一名战士。
Tecumseh fought his first battle at the age of 14.The Shawnee say he became frightened and ran from the battlefield.He was so embarrassed that he made up his mind to never be afraid of battle again.
蒂卡姆西14岁时进行了第一场战斗。肖尼人说他吓坏了,跑离了战场。他很窘并下定决心再也不怕战争了。
In 1790, his forces attacked a group of American soldiers in western Ohio.More than 600 soldiers died and hundreds more were wounded in the attack.It was the biggest defeat of the U.S. army ever.
1790年,他的部队袭击了俄亥俄西部的一批美国士兵。在这次袭击中,600多名士兵死亡,数百人受伤。这是美国军队史上最大的败仗。
Around 1805, Tecumseh’s younger brother is said to have had a series of visions.That experience led him to take the name Tenskwatawa, which means "Prophet" in English.
1805年左右,蒂卡姆西的弟弟据说产生了一系列的幻象。这一经历使他取名为坦斯克瓦特瓦,英文里是“先知”的意思。
Tecumseh worked to support Tenskwatawa’s visions, which promised protection against American soldiers and predicted the return of the traditional Shawnee way of life.
蒂卡姆西致力于支持坦斯克瓦特瓦的愿景,承诺保护美国士兵并预测了肖尼人传统生活方式的回归。
The two brothers established the village of Tippecanoe in what is now Indiana.It was meant to serve as the headquarters of a new native alliance against the U.S. government.
两兄弟在现在的印第安纳州建立了蒂珀卡努村。它原本是作为一个新的反对美国政府的本土联盟的总部。
Tecumseh then began to travel, as far north as Canada and as far south as the Gulf of Mexico.He wanted to spread his brother’s message in an effort to seek out tribal allies.
蒂卡姆西然后开始游走,北到加拿大,南至墨西哥湾。他想宣扬弟弟的信息,以寻求部落的盟友。
By the spring of 1810, non-native settlers had grown increasingly nervous.They worried that the tribal alliance was planning to attack and kill them.
到1810年春天,外来移民变得越来越紧张,他们担心部落联盟会计划袭击并杀死他们。
In 1811, while Tecumseh was away on a trip along the Gulf Coast, the U.S. army prepared to attack "Prophetstown."A group of Shawnee warriors went out to meet them, and the two sides fought a two-hour battle.Neither side won. The Shawnee withdrew from the area.The next day, the U.S. army burned Tippecanoe to the ground.
1811年,当蒂卡姆西停止了海湾沿岸的旅行,美国军队准备进攻“普罗菲茨敦”。一群肖尼勇士出去迎战,双方战斗了两个小时,均未获胜。肖尼人从这个地区撤出。次日,美国军队烧毁了蒂珀卡努。
In 1812, the U.S. Congress declared war on Great Britain.Tecumseh and his allies joined the side of the British.They believed that a British victory would stop the progress of the Americans.Tecumseh is said to have demonstrated himself to be a clever planner who helped the British to victory in Detroit.
1812年,美国国会向大不列颠宣战。蒂卡姆西和他的盟友加入了英国这边。他们认为英国的胜利将阻止美国人的扩张。据说蒂卡姆西被证明了是一个聪明的谋划者,帮助英国在底特律取得胜利。
But in 1813, he was wounded by American forces during the Battle of the Thames in Ontario, Canada.He died a short time later.
但是在1813年,他在加拿大安大略的泰晤士战役中受伤,不久就死了。
His death is seen as having opened the way for American expansion into the continental northwest.In the following years, the U.S. government forced tribes west of the Mississippi River to accept more than 200 treaties.The government also set up nearly 100 areas for Native American tribes.They are called reservations.
他的死亡被视为开辟了美国向大陆西北部扩张的道路。在接下来的几年里,美国政府强迫密西西比河以西的部落接受了200多个条约。政府还为美洲土著部落建立了近100个地区,这些地区被称为保留区。
The Shawnee were once spread across parts of the United States, Canada and Mexico.Today, the U.S. government recognizes the Shawnee in three branches: the Shawnee Tribe, the Absentee Shawnee Tribe and the Eastern Shawnee Tribe.Each one lives in Oklahoma, and all remember Tecumseh as a hero.
肖尼人曾经遍布美国的部分地区,加拿大和墨西哥。今天,美国政府承认肖尼人的三个分支:肖尼部落,在外地主肖尼部落和东肖尼部落。每个都生活在奥克拉荷马,都记得蒂卡姆西是一个英雄。
William Henry Harrison would become the ninth U.S. president.He described Tecumseh as “one of those uncommon geniuses which spring up occasionally to produce revolutions and overturn the established order of things.”
威廉·亨利·哈里森将成为美国的第九任总统。他称蒂卡姆西是“那些罕见的天才之一,他们偶然出现,掀起革命并推翻既定秩序。”
I’m Jonathan Evans.
乔纳森·埃文斯为您播报。

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