猪还是猪肉?牛还是牛肉? 分享到
Pig or Pork? Cow or Beef? 2017-11-1476603

中英
Việt-Anh
ไทย-อังกฤษ
英文

双击原文单词查看解释

原文跟读

Now, Words and Their Stories from VOA Learning English.
这里是美国之音慢速英语单词故事栏目。
On this program we often talk about the origins of words and expressions that we use in American English.We also talk about how we use them in everyday conversations.
本栏目经常讨论美式英语中短语和词汇的起源及其在日常对话中的应用。
Today we talk about animals--and animals we eat.In English, these two categories often have different names.Pigs turn into pork.Cows turn into beef.Sheep is mutton.Calves are veal.And deer is venison.
今天,我们谈论一下动物和我们吃的动物。英语中,这两类词汇完全不同。猪 “pig”变成猪肉是“pork”。牛“cow”变成牛肉是“beef”。羊“sheep”变成羊肉是“mutton”。牛犊 “calves”变成牛犊肉是“veal”。鹿 “deer”变成鹿肉是“venison”。
But why do we call these animals different names when we prepare them for a meal?Why is it “pig” on the farm but "pork" in a sandwich?
为什么这些动物用于烹饪时名字就完全不一样了呢?为什么农场里的猪是“pig”,三明治里的猪肉就成“pork”了呢?
The answer is the Norman Conquest of Britain in 1066.That is when many French words became part of the English language.Many of those French words related to the battlefield, such as “army” and “royal.”Many related to government and taxation.
答案是因为1066年英国诺曼征服事件。当时有许多法语词汇进入英语。许多法语词汇都与战场有关,如“军队”和“王室”。还有许多词汇与政府和征税有关。
And many others related to food.
还有许多词汇与食物有关。
When animals were in the stable or on the farm, they kept their Old English names: pig, cow, sheep and calf.But when they were cooked and brought to the table, an English version of the French word was used:pork (porc), beef (beouf), mutton (mouton) and veal (veau).
畜舍和农场里的动物保留原英语名称,如:pig(猪)、cow(牛)、sheep(羊)和calf(牛犊)。但如果做成食物,搬上饭桌,就用法语词的英文形式:猪肉pork(法语:porc)、牛肉beef(法语:beouf)、羊肉mutton(法语:mouton)和牛犊肉veal(法语:veau)。
On several websites, word experts claim that this change shows a class difference between the Anglo-Saxonsand the French in Britain at the time of the conquest.
某些网站词汇专家称这种变化显示了诺曼征服期间,英国盎格鲁撒克孙人和法国人之间的阶级差异。
Because the lower-class Anglo-Saxons were the hunters, they used the Old English names for animals.But the upper-class French saw these animals only at mealtimes.So, they used the French word to describe the prepared dishes.Today, modern English speakers — regardless of social class — have come to use both.
低等人盎格鲁撒克孙人是猎人,所以他们用动物的古英语名。上层阶级法国人只在吃饭时看到这些动物,所以他们用法语词描绘烹饪好的菜肴。今天,任何社会阶层的英语使用者,两种名称都在使用。
The words “deer" and "venison," however, are a bit more complicated.
但是单词鹿“deer”和鹿肉“venison”有一些复杂。
Etymology Online says "venison" comes from an Old French word from the 1300s (venesoun)meaning "’meat of large game,’ especially deer or boar."And that Old French word comes from a Latin word (venation) meaning "a hunt, hunting, or the chase."
在线词源词典称鹿肉“venison”来自13世纪的古法语,含义是“大型猎物的肉,尤其是鹿肉和野猪肉。”这个古法语词又来自拉丁词汇(venation),含义是“猎人、打猎或追捕”。
Following the Norman Conquest of 1066, any hunted animal was called venison after it was killed.And probably because deer were killed more than any other animal, “venison” came to mean “deer meat.”
1066年诺曼征服后,任何猎物在猎杀后都用venison表示。可能猎杀的鹿比其他动物都多,所以“venison”慢慢就用来形容“鹿肉”。
The words “chicken” and “fish” remain largely unchanged.
单词“鸡”和“鱼”基本上没有发生变化。
However, sometimes we use the word "poultry" when talking about buying a chicken, turkey, or other similar bird to eat.For example, a grocery store may have a place called “the poultry section.”
然而,在买鸡肉、火鸡或其他类似禽类食用时,我们会用单词“poultry(家禽肉)”。例如,杂货店会有一片区域叫“禽肉区”。
But we don’t use "poultry" when we order chicken or turkey at a restaurant, or serve it at a meal.We simply say "chicken" or “turkey.”
但是餐馆中点鸡肉或火鸡食用时我们不会用“poultry(禽肉)”。只会说“chicken(鸡肉)”或“turkey(火鸡肉)”。
For example, if I want to order my favorite dish, which is popular in the southern part of the United States,I will say, "I’ll have the chicken and waffles, please."I would never order "poultry and waffles."
例如,假如我想点我最喜欢的美国南部著名菜肴时我会说:“我想要鸡肉华夫饼。”我从不会点“禽肉华夫饼”。
Lesser common birds, such as quail and pheasant, simply go by their own names.
不太常见的禽类,如鹌鹑和野鸡,就直接用它们自己的名字。
The French word for "fish" is "poisson."Some word experts suspect that "poisson" is too close to the English word "poison" to become a common food word.
法语中和fish(鱼肉)对应的词是“poisson”。一些词汇专家认为“poisson”和英语词“poison(毒药)”过于相像,很难成为常见食物词汇。
After all, even the food-rich culture of France cannot overcome the fact that eating poison might kill you or at least make you sick.As a result, anything that even sounds like “poison” will probably be an unpopular choice at mealtimes.
毕竟,即使是食物文化丰富的法国也无法克服服毒可能致死或至少会生病这一事实。所以,任何听起来和“poison(毒药)”相像的单词都会成为进餐时不受欢迎的选择。
And that bring us to the end of another Words and Their Stories.
以上就是本期单词故事栏目的全部内容。
In your language, do the words for animals change when you eat them?Let us know in the Comments Section!
在你的语言中,动物词汇在食用时发生变化了吗?请在评论区留言。
Thanks for joining us.I’m Anna Matteo.
感谢收听本期栏目。我是安娜·马特奥。

点击加载更多

我的生词本