嘴馋了?那只是你大脑饿了。 分享到
Food Cravings: They’re All in Your Brain. 2018-01-05103952

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From VOA Learning English, this is the Health & Lifestyle report.
这里是美国之音慢速英语健康报道。
We have all been there.It’s 3 o’clock and you’ve been hard at work.As you sit at your desk, a strong desire for chocolate overcomes you.You try to busy yourself to make it go away. But it doesn’t.In fact, the more you try to NOT think about a square of deep, dark chocolate melting in your mouth, the more you want it.You can even smell it!
我们都有过这样的情形。已经3点了,你一直在努力工作。当你坐在办公桌前时,突然一股强烈的欲望袭来:你想吃巧克力了。你试着让自己忙碌起来,不去想它。但是没用。事实上,你越是不去想那块黑巧克力在口中融化的情景,你就越想要它。你甚至可以闻到它!
Here is another scenario.Perhaps you are not feeling well.You’re coming down with a cold and feel rundown.The only thing you want to eat is a big, bowl of chicken soup, like your mom used to make when you were sick as a child.
还有另外一个场景。也许你感觉不舒服。你感冒了,感到很疲惫。你唯一想要喝的就是一碗鸡汤,就像你小时候生病时妈妈做的鸡汤。
A food craving is a strong desire for a specific type of food.And they are normal.Most people have them even though what we crave might be different.One person might crave sweet chocolate, while another might crave salty potato chips.
嘴馋是对某种特定食物的强烈欲望。这种欲望很正常。尽管我们渴求的东西可能有所不同,但大多数人都有这种欲望。一个人可能想吃甜巧克力,另一个人可能想吃咸薯片。
Sometimes the foods we crave are not super healthy ones but rather fatty or sugary foods.Or sometimes we crave foods from our childhoods, like American meatloaf, Polish pirogues or Vietnamese pho.Other times the cravings may be for something healthy but very specific, such as Japanese sushi or Korean kimchi.
有时,我们特别想吃的食物并不是很健康,而是脂肪或糖类食物。有时,我们也会特别想吃童年时期吃过的食物,例如美国的烘肉卷、波兰的pirogue或越南的米粉一样。有时我们也会想吃某些健康但非常特定的东西,比如日本寿司或韩国泡菜。
But where do food cravings come from? And how are they different from hunger?
但是,嘴馋是从哪里来的呢?它与饥饿有何不同?
Scientists at the website How Stuff Works compare hunger and cravings this way.Hunger is a fairly simply connection between the stomach and the brain.They even call it simply “stomach hunger.”
科学家们在《原来如此》(How Stuff Works)网站上比较了饥饿和嘴馋。饥饿是在胃和大脑之间一种简单的连接。他们姑且称之为“肚子饿”。
The website explains that when our stomachs burn up all of the food we have eaten,a hormone (gherlin) sends a message to the one part of the brain, the hypothalamus, for more food.The hypothalamus regulates our most basic body functions such as thirst, hunger and sleep.The brain then releases a chemical to start the appetite. And you eat.
该网站解释说,当我们的胃消化了我们吃的所有食物时,一种激素(gherlin)会向大脑的一个部分(下丘脑)发送信息,以获取更多的食物。下丘脑调节我们最基本的身体机能,如口渴、饥饿和睡眠。然后大脑释放一种化学物质来促进食欲。接着你就想吃东西了。
A craving is more complicated.It involves several areas of the brain.These areas make up the reward center of the brain.A craving can also be tied to our mental state and memory.So, some scientists call cravings “mind hunger.”
嘴馋则更复杂。它涉及大脑的几个区域。这些区域构成了大脑的奖励中枢。嘴馋也与我们的精神状态和记忆联系起来。因此,一些科学家把嘴馋称为“精神饥饿”。
Scientists add that while hunger is a function of survival, cravings are not.People often crave foods that are high in fat and sugar and not foods that can keep us alive.Foods that are high in fat or high in sugar release chemicals in the brain.These chemicals give us feelings of pleasure and even mild (and temporary) euphoria -- much like a drug.
科学家补充说,饥饿是一种生存的功能,而嘴馋则不是。人们常常想吃高脂肪和高糖的食物,而不是能让我们谋生的食物。高脂肪或高糖的食物会在大脑中释放化学物质。这些化学物质给我们带来愉悦感,甚至是轻微的(暂时的)快感——就像毒品一样。
Back in 2004, researchers at the Monell Chemical Senses Center and the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine studied food craving and the brain.They used functional magnetic resonance imaging or, fMRI, to show that food cravings activate brain areas related to emotion, memory and reward.These are the same areas of the brain activated during drug-craving studies.
早在2004年,莫奈尔化学感官中心和宾夕法尼亚大学医学院的研究人员研究了嘴馋和大脑的关系。他们使用了功能性磁共振成像技术(fMRI),结果显示嘴馋能激活与情绪、记忆和奖励相关的大脑区域。这些被激活的大脑区域与药物渴求相关的研究中显示的区域一样。
The lead author of this study was Marcia Levin Pelchat, a sensory psychologist.She says that the finding of the study is “consistent with the idea that cravings of all kinds, whether for food, drugs, or designer shoes, have common mechanisms.”
这个研究的主要作者是感觉心理学家马西娅·列文·佩尔莎。她说,这项研究的发现“符合各种各样的渴求,无论是食物、药物还是名牌鞋,都有共同的机制。”
They work the same way in the brain.Food cravings, drug addiction, and addictive behaviors such as gambling and over-shopping follow similar neural pathways.
他们在大脑中的工作方式一样。嘴馋、毒瘾和成瘾行为,如赌博和过度购物,都遵循类似的神经路径。
Studies show that our mental state affects our food cravings but not really our hunger levels.Also, our food memories affect what we crave and when.For example, if a child is given sweets when he or she feels sad or upset, that may lead to food cravings for sweets later in life.The reward system in the brain may lead us to seek out familiar pleasures.
研究表明,我们的精神状态会影响我们对食物的渴求,但并不会影响我们的饥饿程度。同时,我们对食物的记忆也会影响我们所嘴馋的事物和什么时候会嘴馋。例如,如果一个孩子在感到悲伤或沮丧时得到了糖果,这可能会导致以后对甜食的渴求。大脑中的奖赏系统会引导我们去寻找熟悉的快乐。
In a 2007 study, researchers at Cambridge University found that “dieting or restricted eating generally increase the likelihood of food craving.”So, the more you deny yourself a food that you want, the more you may crave it.However, fasting is a bit different.They found that eating no food at all for a short period of time, lessened food cravings.
在2007年的一项研究中,剑桥大学的研究人员发现,“节食或限制饮食通常会增加嘴馋的可能性。”所以,你越拒绝自己想要的食物,你就会越想吃。然而,禁食则不太一样。他们发现,在短时间内不吃任何食物,对食物的渴求会减少。
So, the next time you crave food from your childhood or have a hankering for something very specific, know that your brain may be more to blame than your stomach.
所以,下次当你特别想吃孩提时代的食物或者渴望某一特定的东西时,你要知道,你的大脑才是“罪魁祸首”。
And that’s the Health & Lifestyle report. I’m Anna Matteo.
这就是健康与生活方式的报道。我是安娜·马特奥。
So, what foods do you crave? Let us know in the Comments Section!
那么,你对什么食物嘴馋呢?在评论区告诉我们吧!

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