研究显示:海洋面临严重威胁 分享到
Several Studies Show Oceans Face Serious Threats 2018-02-0851788

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The world’s oceans are sick, and getting sicker every day.
世界海洋环境堪忧,而且日趋恶化。
Two new studies show the warming of Earth’s atmosphere is removing oxygen from ocean waters and harming coral reefs.
两项新的研究表明,变暖的地球大气吸走了海水中的氧气,威胁着珊瑚礁。
Oxygen is necessary for all life in the oceans, except for a few extremely small organisms.And researchers said oxygen levels are low enough to threaten all the ocean life that depends on it.
除了少数极微小的生物外,所有海洋生物都需要氧气。研究人员说,现在海洋的氧气含量很低,足以威胁到所有依赖海洋的生物。
Denise Breitburg is an ocean scientist at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center.She is also a member of the Global Ocean Oxygen Network, a team of scientists organized by the United Nations to study the issue.
丹尼斯· 布雷特博格是史密森尼环境研究中心的海洋科学家。她也是全球海洋氧气网络的成员,这是一个联合国组织的研究海洋问题的科学家小组。
Breitburg told the Associated Press, “If you can’t breathe, nothing else matters.That pretty much describes it.”
布雷特博格告诉美联社,“如果呼吸都成问题,那还有什么事重要呢。海洋生物也是如此。”
The journal Science published the two studies.The first describes how the growing problem of falling oxygen levels is more complex than experts had thought.The second study shows that rising ocean temperatures are greatly increasing coral reef bleaching events.
《科学》杂志发表了这两项研究。第一项研究发现,氧气含量下降的问题不断恶化,这比专家们想象得还要复杂。第二项研究表明,海洋温度的上升,使得珊瑚礁白化问题更加严重。
Scientists with the Global Ocean Oxygen Network reported that more than 32 million square kilometers of ocean are low in oxygen.These affected areas reach a depth of about 200 meters.
全球海洋氧气网络的科学家报告说,超过3200万平方公里的海洋氧气量很低。这一区域的海洋深度达到了200米。
This area is bigger than Africa, the second largest continent.The scientists say the area of low oxygen levels has grown about 16 percent since 1950.
这一面积比第二大的非洲大陆还要大。科学家们说,自1950年以来,低氧含量的地区已经扩大了大约16%。
The Global Ocean Oxygen Network’s report is the widest reaching look at decreasing oxygen levels in the world’s seas so far.Lisa Levin is a professor at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and a co-author of the report.
全球海洋氧气网络的报告是迄今为止全球海洋中低氧气含量研究范围最广的报告。丽莎·莱文是斯克里普斯海洋研究所的教授,也是这份报告的发布者。
In her words, “The low oxygen problem is the biggest unknown climate change consequence out there.”
用她的话来说,“气候变化带来的后果中,低含氧量是人们最不熟悉的。”
Levin said past research had shown low oxygen areas that were the result of agricultural pollution.She said past studies also showed how warmer waters had created a lack of oxygen.But Levin said this latest study shows how both problems are connected by common causes and possible solutions.
莱文说,过去的研究显示,低含氧量是农业污染的结果。她说,过去的研究也表明,温暖的海水也会造成缺氧。但是莱文说,这项最新研究表明,这两个问题成因相同,也可能有相同的解决办法。
Co-author Denise Breitburg said that some low oxygen levels in the world’s ocean are natural, but not to the extent found.Wind patterns and ocean currents, believed caused by global warming,are preventing oxygen from sinking below the surface of the water.In addition, warmer water does not hold as much oxygen and less oxygen mixes into the water, she said.
合著者丹尼斯· 布雷特博格说,海洋的低氧含量很自然,但是没有达到他们发现的这种程度。风向和洋流是由全球变暖引起的,阻止了氧气沉入水底。她说,另外,温暖的水携带不了多少氧气,进入水里的氧气就会变少。
In the other study, a team of experts looked at 100 coral reefs around the world.They examined how often the reefs experienced severe bleaching events since 1980.
在另一项研究中,一个专家小组研究了世界上100处珊瑚礁。他们研究了自1980年以来珊瑚礁白化现象的频率。
Bleaching happens when water temperature rises just 1 degree Celsius above the normal high for an area.Before the 1980s, reefs that experienced bleaching would have 25 to 30 years before another event.The new study finds that bleaching events are now only about six years apart.
当某一地区的水温仅比正常情况下高1摄氏度时,就会发生白化现象。在20世纪80年代之前,珊瑚礁白化会在25到30年后才发生一次。而这项新的研究发现,现在白化现象相隔6年就会出现一次。
Bleaching is not quite killing the sensitive corals.But it is breaking down the algae that lives inside them.This severely sickens the coral.
白化并不会完全消灭脆弱的珊瑚。但它会分解存在于它们体内的藻类。白化会严重损害珊瑚的健康。
Co-author Mark Eakin runs the Coral Reef Watch program for the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.He said coral reefs near Guam are some of the hardest hit.He said there have eight severe bleaching incidents there since 1994.Four of the incidents were in the last five years.
合著者马克·埃金负责美国国家海洋和大气管理局的珊瑚礁监控项目。他说,关岛附近的珊瑚礁是受白化现象影响最严重的地区之一。他说,自1994年以来,关岛出现了八次严重的白化象。其中四次就出现在过去5年中。
Eakin said that it takes time to recover from bleaching.But, he said, now bleachings are happening too often for coral to recover.
埃金说从白化中恢复需要时间。但是,他说,现在珊瑚的白化现象出现过于频繁,珊瑚来不及恢复。
Only six of the 100 coral reefs had not experienced severe bleaching.Four are around Australia, one is in the Indian Ocean and another is off South Africa’s coast.
在100处珊瑚礁中,只有六处没有出现过严重的白化现象。四处位于澳大利亚,一处位于印度洋,另一处位于南非海岸。
But bleaching is not the only issue coral reefs face.Trash is also a danger.Another team of researchers recently reported about tons of plastic waste trapped in coral reefs from Thailand to Australia.The plastic is severely sickening the reefs, they said.
但珊瑚礁面临的不仅仅是白化问题。垃圾也是一种危险。另一个研究小组最近报告了从泰国到澳大利亚的珊瑚礁中残留的大量塑料垃圾。他们说,这种塑料严重威胁着珊瑚礁。
That study was also published in the journal Science.It found that a total of 11.1 billion pieces of plastic are stuck in reefs in the Asia-Pacific region.The waste includes plastic bags and fishing equipment.
这项研究也发表在《科学》杂志上。研究发现,在亚太地区的珊瑚礁中,总共有111亿片塑料残留在珊瑚礁上。这些垃圾有塑料袋和渔具。
The scientists predicted the amount of plastic would rise 40 percent by 2025.
科学家们预测到2025年塑料的数量将增加40%。
Plastic increases the likelihood of coral disease by about 20 times.It can damage the structure, weakening a coral reef’s defenses.Plastic can also transport other organisms that harm coral.
塑料使珊瑚患病的可能性增加约20倍。它会破坏珊瑚礁的结构,削弱它的抵御能力。塑料还会携带其他危害珊瑚的生物。
The study’s authors urged stronger restrictions on plastic waste.They also said better management of the fishing industry is necessary to protect coral.
该研究的作者敦促人们对塑料垃圾采取更严格的限制。他们还说,为了保护珊瑚,有必要加强渔业管理。
I’m Pete Musto.And I’m Anna Matteo.
我是皮特·马斯托。我是安娜·马特奥。

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