“民间科学家”出动,解决大黄蜂问题 分享到
‘Citizen Scientists’ Seek Solutions to Bumblebee’s Problems 2018-07-0561365

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Hundreds of amateur “citizen scientists” have begun studying the Pacific Northwest area of the United States. They are seeking to learn more about the nearly 30 species of bumblebees that live there.
美国西北部太平洋地区,聚集了数百名业余的“民间科学家”,他们正深入探寻此地生活的30多种大黄蜂。
Bumblebees are important for the growth of wild and agricultural plants. They help spread the substances that make it possible for flowers to reproduce through the process known as pollination.
大黄蜂对野生农业植物的生长有重要影响。它们传播使花朵繁殖的物质,也就是我们熟知的授粉。
But some bumblebee species have disappeared from the places where they were once common.
但一些大黄蜂物种已经从曾经常见的地方消失。
The new, three-year-long research effort is known as the Pacific Northwest Bumble Bee Atlas project.Organizations in Idaho, Oregon and Washington are working together as part of it.
这项为期三年的新研究被称为“太平洋西北大黄蜂地图集”。爱达荷州、俄勒冈州和华盛顿州的相关组织正为此项目展开合作。
Researchers hope to collect enough information to suggest ways to protect bumblebees and their habitat.
调查人员希望能收集足够信息,找到保护大黄蜂及它们栖息地的方法。
Ann Potter works with the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife. She told the Associated Press it is important for humans to study honeybees – “the little guys that make the world go around.”
安·波特是美国鱼类及野生动物管理局工作人员。她告诉美联社记者,人类研究蜜蜂非常重要——因为它们是让“让世界转动的小家伙”。
Rich Hatfield works with the conservation group the Xerces Society. He noted that there is growing interest in returning the habitats for pollinators to their earlier, healthier conditions.
薛西斯昆虫保护协会的理查德·哈特菲德表示,如今人们对恢复授粉昆虫早期健康栖息地的兴趣越来越浓。
The project’s leadership is sending citizen scientists to selected one-hectare sites. They will have tools to capture insects, as well as plant and bee guides. The amateur researchers will also have a special application, or app, on their smartphones. The app makes it so that findings can be recorded, photographed, mapped and sent to a central database.
这一项目的领导人派民间科学家到选定的一公顷大的地区。他们会带着昆虫捕捉器,以及植物和蜜蜂知识指南。这些业余研究人员的手机上都会安装特殊的应用程序,用来记录、拍摄、绘制发现的结果,并将信息发送到中央数据库。
Researchers say a little more than 200 people have agreed to visit 400 sites through the end of August.Hatfield said more volunteers are needed, especially to work in more difficult-to-reach areas.
研究人员称,截至8月底,已有200多人愿意参加400处的调研。哈特菲德称,这一项目还需要更多的志愿者,特别是能在难以到达的地区工作。
For the study, the bees are captured and put in a low-temperature container so that they go into a sleep-like state. Photos are taken that examine the condition of the bees. The bees are then released unharmed once they warm up.
试验中,捕捉到的蜜蜂会放进低温箱中,使它们进入类似睡眠的状态。在拍完用于研究的照片后,就会把苏醒的蜜蜂完好地放归自然。
Unlike honeybees, bumblebees do no spend the winter living in their self-made structures known as hives. Instead, they usually spend the winter in holes in the ground. There are usually only a few hundred individual bumblebees left alive by the time fall arrives. Any honey they produce they eat.
和普通蜜蜂不同,大黄蜂不在自制的蜂巢中过冬,而是通常会在地面的洞里过冬。等到秋天来临时,活下来的大黄蜂只有数百只。它们以自酿的蜂蜜为食。
When winter begins, all bumblebees die except a few pregnant queen bees. In the spring, those queens head out alone to start a new structure to live and produce worker bees in, beginning the process all over again.
冬季来临时,除了几只怀孕的蜂王能够幸存,所有的大黄蜂都会死去。在春季,这些蜂王会开始独自筑巢,繁殖工蜂,年年如此。
Andony Melathopoulos is with Oregon State University. His research interest centers on this period of bumblebees’ lives when they live alone.
俄勒冈州立大学的安东尼·美拉托普洛斯他的兴趣就是研究大黄蜂独自生活的过程。
“Here’s a species that spends a big part of its life as a vulnerable queen,” he said.
他说:“这里的物种是长期易受伤害的蜂王。”
Honeybees first came to the United States from Europe. People brought them in order to help with the pollination of their crops.
蜜蜂起初从欧洲传入美国,帮助人们为农作物授粉。
But when it comes to native North American plants and some crops, bumblebees are much more useful. They are much stronger and can hold onto an entire flower, shaking loose the necessary substance for plant reproduction. For some plant species, the bumblebee is the only insect strong enough to do so.
但对本土的北美植物和某些作物而言,大黄蜂能发挥更好的作用。它们更加强壮,能牢牢抓住整个花朵,将植物繁殖用的花粉摇晃下来。对某些植物品种而言,大黄蜂是唯一有力的昆虫。
The Western bumblebee was once considered common and widespread. But it has since disappeared from many of the areas it once lived in. And experts for the current study are hoping to find reasons for the sudden decrease in Western bumblebee populations.
人们认为西方的大黄蜂随处可见。但之后它却从许多曾经居住过的地区消失。参与这一研究的专家希望找到西方大黄蜂种群锐减的原因。
Ross Winton of Idaho Fish and Game admitted that scientists do not know much about bumblebees.
爱达荷州鱼类保护中心的罗斯·文顿认为科学家对大黄蜂知之甚少。
“The more we learn, the more concerned we get,” he added.
他补充说:“我们了解得越多就越担心。”
In the end, the Pacific Northwest Bumble Bee Atlas could be an example for other states interested in learning more about how their bumblebee populations are doing.
总之,“太平洋西北大黄蜂地图集”为想更多了解大黄蜂数量变化的其他各州开创了先河。
Melathopoulos said, “I think everyone is looking at the Pacific Northwest and this initiative as a test case.”
美拉托普洛斯说:“我认为所有人都在关注西北部太平洋地区,这次行动也是一种尝试。”
The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is paying for the research done in Idaho and Washington. In Oregon, another government group called the Foundation for Food and Agricultural Research is providing financial support.
美国鱼类及野生动物管理局正在为在爱达荷州和华盛顿进行的研究提供经费。在俄勒冈州,另一个名为“食品和农业研究基金会”的政府组织也在提供资金支持。
I’m Pete Musto.
皮特·马斯托为您报道。

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