不以评分论高下的美国大学 分享到
You Won’t Get Grades at These Colleges 2017-08-2893516

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At most American colleges, teachers give students grades that evaluate their performance in class.The grades range from A to F – with A the highest and F signaling failure.
大多数美国大学的老师给学生的评分是根据对他们课堂表现的评估。评分从A到F不等——A最高,F不及格。
But some colleges do not use grades.Instead, teachers write reports on what the students did well and what they did not do well.The reports also include suggestions on how students can do better.
但有一些大学不用分数来衡量。相反,老师会写报告,报告里说明学生们做得好和不好的地方。报告里还会指出学生怎样可以做得更好。
Students and teachers say the written reports provide much more information than letter grades on how students are doing.But some students admit that their parents complain they cannot brag to family and friends that their child is an “A student.”
有很多师生都认为,书面报告比纸面分数更能体现学生的表现情况。但一些学生也承认,他们的父母会抱怨没办法向亲戚炫耀自己的孩子是“得A的好孩子”。
Jessica Wewers, 21, is an early education major at Alverno College in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.Alverno is a small Catholic college serving female students.
洁西卡·韦威尔斯今年21岁,她是威斯康星州密尔沃基市阿尔弗诺学院早期教育专业的学生。阿尔弗诺学院是一个规模不大的天主教学校,只招收女学生。
Wewers said when she returns to her home in Illinois, some friends tell her they think it is strange she does not receive letter grades.
韦威尔斯表示,她回到伊利诺斯州的家之后,一些朋友对她说,他们觉得她没有纸面分数这件事很奇怪。
But Wewers likes the detailed information her teachers provide.It has already helped her prepare teaching plans simple enough for young children to understand.
但韦威尔斯却喜欢她的老师们提供的细节信息。这些信息已经帮助她准备出足够简单的教学方案,让小孩子们可以理解。
“I was asking a little too much of younger children,” Wewers said.
“我以前对孩子们的心理预期过高,”韦威尔斯如是说道。
Her classmate, Angelina Nuno, transferred from a large state college, where she struggled with her writing.Detailed suggestions from her Alverno teachers helped her write clearly.Soon, Nuno expects to begin tutoring fellow students to help with their writing problems.
韦威尔斯的同班同学安吉莉娜·努诺是从某大规模大学转学过来的。转学之前,她写作一直有问题。而阿尔弗诺学院的老师们给她提出的具体建议让她可以清晰地写作。不久后,努诺就可以开始指导学生们的写作问题了。
Ben Stumps is a senior at Hampshire College in Massachusetts.
本·斯顿普斯是马萨诸塞州罕布什尔学院的一名大四学生。
He said that he received traditional A through F grades at high school.But in many cases, he could not explain why he received the grades he did.
他表示,他高中阶段采用的是传统的A-F评分的方式。但在很多情况下,他自己也不知道为什么得到相应的分数。
Stumps said students at Hampshire and other colleges without letter grades are more willing to take difficult classes.For example, Stumps said he struggled in high school with science.But he was willing to take a science class in college because he did not risk getting a bad grade that could hurt his grade point average.
斯顿普斯表示,罕布什尔学院这样不采用给予纸面分数的学校更愿意上难度较高的课程。比如,斯顿普斯表示,他高中的时候,科学课不好。但大学的时候,他就愿意修这门课,因为他不会担心得低分,也就不会影响他的GPA。
And, he found that he not only enjoyed the science class, but had the skills to successfully complete scientific research.
此外,他发现,他不仅很享受这门课,而且也掌握了技能,可以顺利完成科学研究。
Other schools that provide written reports instead of letter grades include Antioch University with campuses in Los Angles, California and four other locations; New College of Florida; Prescott College in Arizona; Goddard College in Vermont and Washington;and Fairhaven College of Interdisciplinary Studies and Evergreen State College, both in Washington State.
其他提供书面报告而非纸面分数的学校还有安迪亚克大学,除了加州洛杉矶外,其还有四个校区;新佛罗里达学院;亚利桑那州的普雷斯科特学院;佛蒙特州和华盛顿的戈达德学院;华盛顿州交叉学科类的费尔黑文学院和常青州立学院。
Indiana University did a report on the history of grading in America.It said Yale University in Connecticut was the first college to give out grades to “differentiate” student performance.In other words, it wanted to show how students compared to each other.Yale started in the late 1700s with a top grade of “optimi” and a grade of “inferiores” for students not doing very well.
印第安纳大学就美国大学评分演变历史做了一份报告。报告指出,康乃迪克州的耶鲁大学是第一所通过评分来“区分”学生表现的学校。换句话说,耶鲁大学想看到学生之间的比较。18世纪末,耶鲁大学开始以“optimi”来表示高分,以“inferiores”来表示学生的表现不尽如人意。
Mark Hower is interim provost at Antioch University in Los Angeles.
马克·霍韦尔是洛杉矶安迪亚克大学的临时教务长。
He said international students often must adjust to college life in America.Written evaluations can help them understand what is expected of them better than a letter grade that “tells them very little,” Hower said.
他表示,来自其他国家的学生总是必须要适应美国的大学生活。书面报告可以帮助他们更好地理解自己应该达到的预期,这要好于“毫无信息量”的分数,霍韦尔如是说道。
Nevertheless, some people worry what will happen to Antioch students when they apply for graduate school and jobs.Will they be able to compete with students who have traditional grades?
然而,一些人担心,安迪亚克大学的学生在申请研究生院校和找工作时会遇到麻烦。他们能与有传统纸面分数的学生一起竞争吗?
Hower says yes.Most admissions officers and employers welcome the more detailed information Antioch provides, he added.
霍韦尔的答案是肯定的。很多招聘官都希望安迪亚克大学提供的这种更细节的信息。
Rachel Rubinstein is dean of academic support at Hampshire College.She said people running companies do not use letter grades to evaluate their workers.They value employees based on whether they can do their jobs well.
雷切尔·鲁宾斯坦是罕布什尔学院的学术院长。她表示,经营公司的人不会用纸面分数来评估自己的员工。他们评估员工是基于工作完成的质量。
Rubinstein said colleges should do the same.“Letter grades do not tell you nearly enough about how students are doing.”
鲁宾斯坦表示,大学也应该这样。“纸面分数并不能充分展现一个学生的表现。”
William Coplin is director of the Public Affairs Program of the Maxwell School at Syracuse University in New York.
威廉·科普林是纽约雪城大学公共事物学院的院长。
He said most colleges do not give students enough information about how grades are determined.
他表示,大多数大学不会告诉分数是如何评定的。
But he questions if students will work hard if they are not worrying about getting good grades.“Kids are motivated by grades,” Coplin said. “There are very few kids who are self-motivated.”
但他觉得,学生是不会努力学习的,除非他们担心得不到好成绩。“孩子都是要靠成绩来鞭策的,”科普林如是说道。“很少有人是自我鞭策的。”
Vanessa Rios, 32, earned an undergraduate degree from Antioch University in Los Angeles.She is now working toward her master’s degree at Antioch.
瓦内萨·里约斯今年32岁,她本科毕业于洛杉矶的安迪亚克大学。她现在正在攻读安迪亚克大学的硕士学位。
Rios said just because students are not getting letter grades does not mean students can get away without working hard.The detailed reviews by teachers mean they need to understand what is being taught, she said.
里约斯表示,就算得不到高分,也不代表可以不努力学习。老师给出的细节审阅报告是要他们理解老师教了什么,她如是说道。
“What it (not having in grades) does do is reduce the anxiety level,” Rios said.
里约斯说,“不给分数这种做法也会缓解学生的焦虑。”
Kathy Lake is vice president for academic affairs at Alverno.
凯西·莱克是阿尔弗诺学院教学副院长。
She said students will be disappointed if they think “no grades” means less work.At many colleges, students stay up all night before big exams to try to learn information they were supposed to learn over months in the classroom.
她表示,学生们如果觉得“没有分数”就意味着做更少的工作的话,就会感到失望。很多大学的学生在大考来临前会整晚熬夜,识记他们过去数月来在课堂上应该学会的东西。
“That just doesn’t work at Alverno,” Lake said.At Alverno, teachers evaluate students at each class -- meaning one night of studying will not be nearly enough, she said.
莱克表示,“阿尔弗诺学院就不是如此。”阿尔弗诺学院的老师们会在每堂课上评估学生的表现——也就是说,单单一晚上的学习是不够的,她如是说道。
I’m Bruce Alpert.
布鲁斯·阿尔佩特为您播报。
And I’m Jill Robbins.
吉尔·罗宾斯为您播报。

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