错误信息还是虚假信息 分享到
Misinformation or Disinformation 2018-12-0193435

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The website Dictionary.com has chosen the term‘misinformation’as its word of the year. The announcement comes less than two weeks after Oxford Dictionaries chose ‘toxic’ as its word of the year.
在线词典网站将“misinformation(错误信息)”一词选为年度词汇。大概两周前,《牛津词典》将“toxic(毒物)”一词选为年度词汇。
Many people mix up the meaning of misinformation with the word disinformation. They sometimes use one term in place of the other.
许多人都会混淆misinformation和disinformation这两个词的含义。他们有时会用一个词代替另一个词使用。
Dictionary.com defines misinformation as “false information that is spread, regardless of whether there is intent to mislead.” And it describes disinformation as “deliberately misleading or biased information; manipulated narrative or facts; propaganda.”
在线词典网站将“misinformation(错误信息)”一词定义为“不一定存在误导意图的错误信息”。将“disinformation(虚假信息)”一词定义为为“故意误导性、带有偏见的信息;被篡改的事实;煽动。”
So what’s the difference?
所以二者的区别是什么呢?
Officials at Dictionary.com say it comes down to what the writer or speaker actually means. They say that “when people spread misinformation, they often believe the information they are sharing.” But disinformation is often shared with the goal of misleading others. For example, if people share information that they know to be false in a story or a picture, that is disinformation.
在线词典网站的工作人员表示,这取决于作者或演讲者的真实意图。他们表示,“当人们传播错误信息时,他们通常会相信他们所分享的信息。”但虚假信息往往被用来误导他人。例如,如果人们在故事或图片里分享他们已知的错误信息,那么这就是虚假信息。
Jane Solomon is a language expert with Dictionary.com. She told VOA that the choice of misinformation, instead of disinformation, was done for a reason. She said, “disinformation is a word that looks outside of ourselves. You can point a finger at someone who is spreading this disinformation.”
简·所罗门是在线词典网站的语言专家。她对美国之音说,选择错误信息一词而不是虚假信息这个词是有原因的。她称:“虚假信息一词看起来是一个超出我们认知范围的词。你可以指责散布这种虚假信息的人。”
As for misinformation, “there is a quality of looking inward and it helps us evaluate our own behavior” to fight against the spread of misinformation.
至于错误信息一词,“带有内省的含义,它可以帮助我们评估自己的行为”,抵制错误信息的传播。
The word misinformation has been used since the late 1500s. But Solomon said the word was chosen this year because it also “ties to a lot of events that are happening in 2018.”
错误信息这个词从16世纪末就开始使用。但所罗门表示,之所以选择这个词,是因为它还“与2018年发生的许多事件有关”。
In Myanmar, misinformation, like hate speech and propaganda, fueled violence against Rohingya Muslims. And there were riots in Sri Lanka after stories that proved false set the country’s Buddhist majority against Muslims.
缅甸国内的仇恨言论和煽动宣传等错误信息助长了针对罗兴亚穆斯林的暴力行为。斯里兰卡因为一些错误报道发生了骚乱,导致该国占人口大多数的佛教徒开始反对穆斯林。
The disappearance and reported killing of Saudi writer Jamal Khashoggi fueled misinformation about him and his fiancée. And stories about Brazil’s recent presidential election were filled with misinformation, everything from incorrect voting times to false campaign promises.
沙特作家贾迈勒·哈苏吉失踪,据报道已经身亡,这引发了有关他和未婚妻的错误信息传播。巴西最近的总统选举报道也充满了错误信息,从错误的投票时间到虚假的竞选承诺,到处都是错误信息。
Facebook and other social media websites have published misinformation, including images of police arresting immigrants and long lines at voting stations in the United States. They also posted incorrect voting hours and false voting requirements before the November 6 elections.
脸书等社交媒体网站也曾发布一些错误信息,例如警察逮捕移民,美国投票站前排起的长队。他们还在11月6日的选举前张贴了错误的投票时间和错误的投票要求。
Liz McMillan is head of Dictionary.com. She noted that the online publisher has chosen words like identity in 2015, xenophobia in 2016, and complicit in 2017.
利兹·麦克米兰是在线词典网站的负责人。她表示,该在线出版商选择的年度词汇分别为:2015年“身份”(identity)、2016年“仇外情绪”(xenophobia)和2017年“同谋”(complicit)。
She said, “By arming our users with these words and enabling them to identify misinformation when it is encountered gives us a fighting chance against its influence.”
她说,“这些词可以帮助保护我们的用户,让他们能够识别错误信息,这也给我们提供了一个对抗错误信息影响的机会。”
I’m Dorothy Gundy.
多萝西·甘地为您播报。

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