名师答疑:介词“by”的用法 分享到
Ask a Teacher: The Preposition ’By’ 2018-12-0371812

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If you can write or speak even just a little English, you have surely used prepositions -- words like "to," "in," "on," "at" and "by." A preposition is a word or group of words that shows direction, location or time. Today on Ask a Teacher, we have a question about one such word.
如果你能写或说哪怕一点英语,你肯定已经用过像“to”、“in”、“on”、“at”和“by”这样的介词了。介词是表示方向、位置或时间的词或词组。今天在名师答疑栏目中,我们有一个关于这样一个词的问题。
Hi, I’m Frank John from Tanzania. I don’t know how to use "by" in a sentence.
你好,我是来自坦桑尼亚的弗兰克·约翰。我不知道在句子中如何使用“by”。
Hello Frank!It sounds like you know the meaning of “by” but are unsure of how to use it with other words. Let me try to help!
你好,弗兰克。听起来你知道“by”的意思,但不知道如何将它与其他词搭配使用。让我来帮你吧!
“By” is usually a preposition but sometimes acts as an adverb. It can be used in many ways, but today we will talk about four uses as a preposition and show you where it is placed in a sentence.
“By”通常是介词,但有时用作副词。它有很多种用法,但今天我们要讨论它作为介词的四种用法,并告诉你它在句子中的位置。
Let’s start with using “by” to show place or location. When we use "by" this way, it means "close to" "next to" or "beside." Here are two examples. Note that “by” comes before the place.
让我们从用“by”表示地点或位置开始吧。我们这样使用“by”时,它的意思是“接近”、“紧邻”或“在旁边”。下面是两个例子。请注意,“by”出现在地点之前。
Meet me at the show! I’ll be seated by the door.
在展会上跟我见面吧!我会坐在门旁边。
The university is by the sea.
这个大学就在海边。
Now for the second use. When “by” is placed after motion-related verbs -- like "run," "drive," and "walk" -- it often shows movement past a place.
下面是第二种用法。当“by”放在“run”、“drive”和“walk”等与动作相关的动词之后时,它通常表示经过一个地方的动作。
Let’s listen:I walked by the river on Sunday. It was a beautiful day!
让我们来听下面的例子:周日我在河边散步。真是美丽的一天啊!
Did you drive by my building today? I thought I saw you.
你今天开车路过我家了吗?我以为我看到你了。
Another way we use “by” is to talk about time on a clock. When we use it this way, it means “not later than.” The word “by” comes before the time. Have a listen:Your appointment is at 1:00. Please arrive by 12:45.
我们使用“by”的另一种方式是谈论钟表上的时间。我们这样使用它时,它的意思是“不晚于”。“By”这个词出现在时间之前。听下面的例子:你的预约时间是1点。 请在12:45之前到。
We should leave by 7:00 to beat the crowds.
为了避开人群,我们应该在7点前离开。
The last use we will consider today is about doing something alone or without any help. We make this meaning with “by” followed with a reflexive pronoun, such as "myself" or "yourself."
我们今天要考虑的最后一种用法是单独做某事或不需要任何帮助。我们用“by”加上“myself”或“yourself”等反身代词,来表达这个意思。
Here are two examples:He moved the heavy table all by himself.
下面是两个例子:他一个人搬那张沉重的桌子。
I’m sorry, I couldn’t go. Did you go by yourself?
对不起,我没能去。你一个人去的吗?
And that’s Ask a Teacher.
以上就是本期名师答疑的全部内容。
I’m Alice Bryant.
艾丽斯·布赖恩特为您播报。

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