抗生素耐药性已从动物蔓延至人类 分享到
Antibiotic Resistance Spreads Quickly from Animals to People 2018-05-1090477

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Scientists are shocked at the speed at which resistance to powerful antibiotics spreads from animals to people.
抗生素耐药性从动物扩散到人类的速度之快让科学家感到震惊。
New research has shown that genetic changes in pathogens affect people and animals around the world in just a few years. The research suggests these genetic changes probably spread from a pig farm in China.
新的研究表明,在短短几年内,病原体的基因变化会影响全世界的人类和动物。这项研究表明,这些基因变异可能是从中国的一个养猪场传播开来的。
Professor Francois Balloux is the lead researcher for the study and director of the Genetics Institute at University College London.
弗朗索瓦·巴卢教授是伦敦大学学院遗传学研究所的首席研究员。
He says the powerful antibiotic Colistin has become an important last line of defense.It is used to save people’s lives when all other drugs have failed.
他说,强大的抗生素粘菌素已经成为重要的最后一道防线。当所有其他药物都不起作用时,它可以拯救人们的生命。
“And it was mostly used in agriculture then, in pigs and a bit in chickens. But recently, as we are running out of drugs, people actually have become a bit more interested in using it, and it has been used quite extensively recently over the last five to 10 years in the clinic.”
“粘菌素主要用于农业,用在猪和鸡身上。但是最近,我们的药物正逐渐用完,人类实际上开始对它产生了兴趣,最近5到10年,它广泛用于诊所。”
Now, even Colistin is losing its power against highly resistant bacteria called "superbugs."
现在,即使是粘菌素也无力对抗被称为“超级细菌”的高耐药性细菌。
Deadly pathogens like E. Coli or salmonella can change and develop resistance to antibiotics. Balloux’s research identifies the speed at which the gene that gives resistance to Colistin began in the mid-2000s.
像大肠杆菌或沙门氏菌这样的致命病原体可以改变并对抗生素产生耐药性。巴卢的研究确定了基因传播的速度,对粘菌素产生耐药性的基因在本世纪初就已开始传播。
“It happened once. And it jumped very, very likely from pigs, probably in China, and it spread extremely rapidly throughout the world. And it also spread in all sorts of different species and affects humans.”
“这种情况曾出现过一次。起初在猪的身上发现了这种基因,很可能在中国开始,随后在世界各地迅速传播。耐药基因也在不同物种中传播并影响人类。”
The resistance has even been found in pathogens in seawater on Brazilian beaches. Balloux notes his study centered on just one resistant gene, but many pathogens are developing other forms of resistance.
在巴西海滩的海水中发现了耐药病原体。巴卢注意到他的研究只集中在一种耐药基因上,但许多病原体还具有其他形式的抗药性。
Sally Davies is Britain’s chief medical officer. She warned recently that anti-microbial resistance could lead to the "end of modern medicine."
萨利·戴姆斯是英国的首席医疗官。她最近警告说,抗菌素耐药性可能导致“现代医学的终结”。
Last October, she spoke to delegates at a conference on anti-microbial resistance in Germany. She told them that common operations, such as cesarean sections, would become dangerous without working antibiotics.
去年10月,在德国一场抗菌素耐药性会议上她向与会代表发表了讲话。她指出,如果不使用抗生素,常见的手术,如剖腹产,将会变得危险。
“Those would become much more risky if we did not have effective antibiotics. Superbugs kill and they’re on the rise.”
“如果没有有效的抗生素,我们就会面临更多风险。超级细菌就会占据上风,蓄势待发。”
Scientists are working on improving existing drugs like Colistin to give them added power against resistant pathogens.
科学家们正在努力改进现有的药物,如粘菌素,以增强对抗耐药性病原体的能力。
In the longer term, researchers say more investment is needed in developing new drugs.They also say there is a need to rethink how antibiotics are used in agriculture and at clinics.
从长远来看,研究人员称研发新药需要更多的投资。他们还说,有必要重新思考抗生素在农业和诊所中使用的方式。
I’m Alice Bryant.
我是爱丽丝·布莱恩特。

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