干冷气候或是导致尼安德特人消失的原因 分享到
Cooling, Drying Climate May Have Led to Neanderthal Disappearance 2018-09-06103869

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A new study suggests that ancient periods of cold and dry climate helped our species take the place of Neanderthals in Europe.
一项新研究表明,远古时代干冷的气候周期帮助我们这个物种取代了生活在欧洲的尼安德特人。
Researchers found that such cold periods happened at the same time Neanderthals seemed to disappear in different parts of the continent. Their disappearance was followed by the appearance of our species: Homo sapiens.
研究人员发现,这种寒冷气候期出现在尼安德特人似乎在欧洲大陆各地消失的同时。他们消失之后,我们这个物种出现了:智人。
Neanderthals are a species of early humans that once lived in Europe and Asia. The species died out about 40,000 years ago. Homo sapiens arrived in Europe a few thousand years later.
尼安德特人是早期人类的一个物种,曾经生活在欧洲和亚洲。该物种在大约4万年前就灭绝了。几千年后,智人来到欧洲。
Scientists have long debated what happened. Some have blamed the change in climate. Others have proposed explanations including the sudden spread of diseases and the idea that newcomers competed with the Neanderthals for resources.
科学家们一直在争论到底发生了什么。一些人将其归咎于气候变化。另一些人提出了一些解释,包括疾病的突然传播,还有一种观点是新来者与尼安德特人竞争资源。
Michael Staubwasser is a scientist with the University of Cologne in Germany. He and his research team reported their findings in late August in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The researchers examined existing climate, archaeological and ecological data and added new measurements of ancient climate. Those measurements came from two caves in Romania.
米夏埃尔·施陶布瓦塞尔是一位科学家,任职于德国科隆大学。他和他的研究小组于8月底在《美国国家科学院院刊》上发表了他们的研究结果。这些研究员引用了现在的气候、考古学和生态学数据,并添加了新的古代气候测量数据,这些数据是通过对罗马尼亚两个洞穴测量而获得的。
Their study centered around two cold and dry periods. One began about 44,000 years ago and lasted about 1,000 years. The other began about 40,800 years ago and lasted about 600 years. The timing of those events matches the periods in which objects made by Neanderthals disappear.
他们的研究凸显了两段寒冷干燥时期。其中一段开始于大约4.4万年前,持续了大约1000年。另一段开始于大约4.08万年前,持续了大约600年。这两段时期与尼安德特人制造的物品消失的时期相吻合。
“Whether they moved or died out, we can’t tell,” Staubwasser told the Associated Press.
施陶布瓦塞尔告诉美联社,“他们是迁徙走了还是灭绝了,我们不得而知。”
During the two events, signs of Homo sapiens appear in sites within the Danube River Valley in central and Eastern Europe and in France, the team noted.
研究小组指出,恰恰在这两段时期,欧洲中东部的多瑙河峡谷中的一些地方以及法国出现了智人的踪迹。
The changes in climate would have turned forests into grassland filled with small plants. Homo sapiens may have been better adapted to that new environment than the Neanderthals were. So they may have been able to move in after Neanderthals disappeared, the researchers wrote.
研究人员写道,气候的变化会使森林变成布满灌木的草地,智人可能比尼安德特人更适应这种新环境,因此在尼安德特人消失后,他们可能已经能够迁徙进来了。
Katerina Harvati is a Neanderthal expert at the University of Tuebingen in Germany. She was not involved in the study. She said it is helpful to have the new climate data from southeastern Europe. That is an area that many researchers think Homo sapiens used to spread through the continent.
卡特琳娜·哈尔瓦蒂是德国蒂宾根大学一名研究尼安德特人的专家。她没有参与此项研究。她说,获得欧洲东南部新的气候数据非常有帮助。许多研究员都认为,智人就是从那里开始分散至整个欧洲大陆的。
But Harvati said it is unclear whether Neanderthals disappeared and Homo sapiens appeared at the times the researchers claim. She said that is because the studies they base their findings on depend on limited evidence and are sometimes disputed.
但哈尔瓦蒂表示,并不能确定尼安德特人消失和智人出现是否在这些研究员指出的时期。她说,这是因为他们的研究结果基于有限的证据,有时还存在争议。
Chris Stringer is with the Natural History Museum in London. He said he thought the paper made a good case for the effect changes in climate had on Neanderthals. Yet he believes other things also led to their disappearance.
克里斯·斯特林格在伦敦自然历史博物馆工作。他表示,他认为这份研究报告很好地解释了气候变化对尼安德特人的影响。不过他认为还有其他因素导致了他们消失。
Rick Potts of the Smithsonian Institution called the study “a refreshing new look” at how one species took the other’s place.
美国史密森学会的里克·波茨称,在研究物种更替方面,这项研究提供了“一种令人耳目一新的视角”。
“As has been said before, our species didn’t outsmart the Neanderthals,” Potts wrote. “We simply out-survived them.”
波茨写道,“正如以前所说,我们这个物种并不比尼安德特人聪明。只不过我们比他们活得更长久。”
I’m Pete Musto.
皮特·马斯托为您播报。

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