美国、法国、加拿大科学家获诺贝尔物理学奖 分享到
American, French, Canadian Scientists Win Nobel Physics Prize 2018-10-0489189

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Two men and a woman have won the 2018 Nobel Prize in Physics for their “inventions in the field of laser physics.”
两位男士和一位女士凭借他们“在激光物理学领域的发明”获得2018年诺贝尔物理学奖。
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences says half of the $1 million prize will go to Arthur Ashkin of the United States.The other half will be shared by Gerard Mourou of France and Donna Strickland of Canada.
瑞典皇家科学院表示100万美元奖金的一半将授予美国科学家亚瑟·阿什金。另一半由法国杰拉德·穆卢和加拿大唐娜·斯特里克兰分享。
The Swedish academy said their discoveries made possible “tools made of light” that improve scientific research, industry and medicine.
瑞典皇家科学院表示,他们的发现使得“光制工具”成为可能,从而可以改善科学研究、工业和药业的发展。
These devices “are opening unexplored areas of research and a multitude of industrial and medical applications,” it said.
科学院称,这些工具“打开了未开发的研究领域,开发了大量工业和医学应用”。
Mourou and Strickland are being recognized for their work on high-intensity lasers.The Swedish academy praised them for developing a way to increase the power and usefulness of lasers.
穆卢和斯特里克兰因为在高强度激光器领域取得的成就而受到奖彰。瑞典皇家科学院赞扬他们开发了一种方法,增加了激光的能量和用处。
A laser is a device that produces an intense beam of light.In a report published in 1985, Strickland proposed stretching and then compressing laser light.She and Mourou found a way to produce a powerful laser pulse that lasts an almost unimaginably short period of time.Their technique puts more light “in the same tiny space,” greatly increasing its intensity.
激光装置可以产生强烈光束。1985年发布的一则报道称,斯特里克兰提议可先拉伸再压缩激光。她和穆卢发现了一种可产生强力激光脉冲的方法,这种脉冲持续时间短的几乎难以想象。他们的技术可以将更多光束放在“同一小空间里”,这大大提高了光的强度。
Their discoveries led to very precise, powerful lasers that can cut holes in different materials, including living tissue.Such lasers are now used in corrective eye operations.Millions of these operations have been performed on people around the world.
他们的发现帮助产生了更加准确、有力的激光,可以在活组织等各种材料中穿孔。如今这些激光应用于视力矫正手术中。全世界有数百万人接受了这种手术。
Strickland is only the third woman to ever win the Nobel physics prize.The first was Marie Curie of France in 1903.
斯特里克兰是历史上第三位获得诺贝尔物理学奖的女性。第一位是法国的玛丽·居里,1903年获奖。
Strickland spoke briefly about the lack of women physics winners in a telephone call with the academy.
斯特里克兰在与科学院的一次电话会议上简短地谈到了缺少女物理学家获得物理学奖的问题。
“Obviously we need to celebrate women physicists because we’re out there.And hopefully, in time, it’ll start to move forward at a faster rate, maybe,” she said.
她说:“很明显我们需要庆祝女物理学家获奖,因为我们在那里。希望随着时间的推移,或许可以以更快的速度进行改变.”
Mourou said, “I am very, very happy to share this distinction with my former student Donna Stricklandand also to share it with Art Ashkin, for whom I have a lot of respect.”
穆卢表示:“对于和我的前任学生唐娜·斯特里克兰以及和我非常尊敬的亚瑟·阿什金共同分享这份荣誉,我感到非常非常的高兴。”
The American scientist will receive half of the prize money for what the academy called “optical tweezers.”
美国科学家将获得学院所谓的“光摄”奖一半的奖金。
Ashkin discovered that the “radiation pressure” from a beam of light can be used to move extremely small objects and hold them in position.In 1987, he used a laser to seize and hold bacteria without harming them.His discovery made possible new ways to study microscopic biology and other objects.
阿什金发现光束的“辐射压力”可以用来移动非常小的物体并保持其位置。1987年,他使用激光在没造成任何伤害的情况下,寻找并抓住了微生物。他的发现为研究微观生物学和其他生物提供了新方法。
At the age of 96, Ashkin is the oldest person to ever receive a Nobel Prize.
今年96岁的阿什金是有史以来获诺贝尔奖年纪最大的人。
The Nobel Prize in Physics will be officially presented at ceremonies in Stockholm, Sweden on December 10.
诺贝尔物理学奖将在12月10日瑞典斯德歌尔摩举办的典礼上正式颁发。
The first physics prize was given in 1901 by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
1901年瑞典皇家科学院颁布了第一个诺贝尔物理学奖。
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