美洲土著居民和美国历史 分享到
Native Americans and the History of the United States 2013-10-11174529

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Welcome to the Making of a Nation – American history in VOA Special English. I’m Steve Ember.This week in our series, we look at the history of early American Indians.
欢迎来到美国之音慢速英语建国史话栏目。我是Steve Ember。本周我们的节目要为大家讲述早期美洲印第安人的历史。
The native peoples of North and South America came from Siberia thousands of years ago.There was a land bridge between Siberia and Alaska before the end of the last ice age.As the groups settled different parts of the land, they developed their own cultures and religions.Each group’s story is important in the history of the Americas.But our story today will focus on the tribes in what became the central part of the United States.
美国北部和南部的原住民是几千年前来自西伯利亚的人。在最后一个冰河时代结束之前,这里有一座连接西伯利亚和阿拉斯加的大陆桥。因为不同群体居住在不同的地方,因此他们发展了自己的文化和宗教。每组的故事在美洲历史上都很重要。但我们今天的故事,将重点放在了美国中部的部落。
In 1804, Merriwether Lewis and William Clark led a group of explorers to the Pacific Ocean.They met the tribes of the Great Plains.The explorers were perhaps the first white people these Native Americans had ever seen.
1804年,Merriwether Lewis和William Clark带领一群探险家到太平洋探索。他们遇到了大平原的部落。探险家们可能是美国原著民所见过的第一个白人。
When the group of explorers neared the eastern side of the Rocky Mountains, they encountered the Shoshone tribe.Merriwether Lewis was the first to see them. Imagine for a moment that we are with Merriwether Lewis near the Rocky Mountains.Across a small hill, a group of sixty Shoshone men are riding toward us.
当这群探险家靠近落矶山脉东部时,他们遇到了一个名为Shoshone的部落。Merriwether Lewis第一个看到他们。想象一下,我们和Merriwether Lewis一起在落基山脉附近的情形。60个Shoshone人骑着马,穿越一个小山丘,正向我们冲来。
The first thing we see is that these men are ready for war.Each is armed with a bow and arrow. Some carry long poles with a sharp knife on the end.
我们首先看到的是,这些人已经做好了战斗的准备。每个人都装备着弓和箭。有的还带着一端装有尖刀的棍子。
They are riding very fast. Some of the horses look like they do not have riders.But as they get closer we see that the riders are hanging off the sides of the horses, or under the neck.They are using the horses’ bodies for protection.
他们骑得很快。有些马看起来没有骑手。但当他们接近我们时可看到骑兵挂在马的两侧,或脖子上。他们用马的身体作掩护。
The horses are painted with many different designs in blue, black, red and other colors.Later we learn that each design has a special meaning for the man who owns the horse.Each one tells a story.For example, the rider of one of the horses is a leader in battle.Another has killed an enemy.
马身上涂上不同的颜色,蓝色,黑色,红色和其他颜色。后来我们知道,对于马的主人来说每个图案都有特殊意义。每一个都讲述了一段故事。例如,这匹马的骑士是领头的。另一个曾经杀死了敌人。
As they come nearer, the Shoshone group sees that we are not ready for war.They slow their horses but are still very careful.Merriwether Lewis holds up an open hand as a sign of peace.The leader of the Shoshone does the same. They come closer.
当他们靠近些,Shoshone部落认为我们还没有做好战斗的准备。他们减慢了马速度,但仍然非常小心。Merriwether Lewis举起手掌作为和平的象征。Shoshone部落的领袖也做了同样的动作。他们走得更近了。
The Shoshone are dressed in clothes made from animal skins.Most of these skins are from deer or buffalo.The skins also have designs, and tell stories like the designs on the horses.One design shows that someone has fought in a battle.Another shows that the person has been in many raids to capture horses.Still another shows that someone saved the life of a friend.
Shoshone人穿着动物皮制成的衣服。大多数这些皮取自鹿和水牛。这些皮也设计出不同图案,就像马身上的图案一样,讲述了一些故事。一个表明一人曾参与过一场战役。另一个表示这个人多次参加了捕马的突袭。另一个表明有人救了朋友的命。
Merriwether Lewis smiles at these men.He and the Shoshone chief cannot speak each other’s language.The explorer again makes a sign of peace, and the sign is again returned.
Merriwether Lewis对这些人微笑。他和Shoshone首领都不懂得对方的语言。探险家又做了一个和平的手势,这个手势得到了回应。
One young Shoshone comes near. He gets off his horse.He is tall and looks strong. His hair is long and black.He wears one long bird feather in the back of his hair.His arms have been painted with long lines.We learn that each line represents a battle.There are many lines on his arms.Fortunately we are able to continue our travels without a need for him to add another line.
一个年轻的Shoshone人走近。他从马上下来。他个子很高,看上去很强壮。他的头发又长又黑。头发后面插着一根长长的鸟的羽毛。他的手臂上画着长线条。我们知道,每一条代表一次战斗。他的胳膊上有许多线条。幸运的是,我们的旅程没有让他的条纹增加。
Many tribes, including the Shoshone, populated the area known as the Great Plains.The land they lived on influenced the lives and cultures of these Indian nations.
包括Shoshone在内的许多部落都生活在被称为大平原的人口稠密区。基于他们所生活的这片土地,这些部落形成了他们印第安的生活和文化。
The plains stretch across the central part of the country and north into Canada and south to Mexico.Even in a car traveling at 100 kilometers an hour, it can take two long days of driving to cross the Great Plains.
这个平原横跨该国和北加拿大中部和墨西哥南部。即使坐在以时速100公里的汽车中,要穿过大平原也需要花上两天时间。
In the East, the plains begin near the Mississippi River and go west to the huge Rocky Mountains.There are big rivers here, and deserts. Some areas are so flat that a person can see for hundreds of kilometers.Huge areas of this land were once covered by thick grasses.
在东面,大平原从靠近密西西比河的地方开始,向西到巨大的洛基山脉。这里有很大的河流,和沙漠。有些地方很平坦,一眼能看到数百公里外。这片土地曾经覆盖着厚厚的草。
Those grasses provided food for an animal that made possible the culture of the Indians of the Great Plains.
这些草为动物提供了食物,是它们使得大平原的印第安人的文化发展有了可能。
The grass fed the buffalo, or bison, that were the center of native culture in the Great Plains.The huge animals provided meat for the Indians -- and much more.They were an important part of the religion of most of the native people in the Great Plains.
草喂牛,或者水牛,这是大平原本土的文化中心。这些大型动物为印第安人提供了食物——以及更多。它们还是大平原地区大多数土著居民宗教信仰的一个重要组成部分。
The Lakota tribe, sometimes called the Sioux, believed that everything necessary for life could be found in the buffalo.
Lakota部落,有时也被称为Sioux,他们相信生命所必需的一切都在水牛中。
The back of the animal provided the thick skins that the Plains Indians used to make their homes.Other parts of the buffalo hide were made into clothing and warm blankets.The bones were made into tools. No part of the animal was wasted.
平原印第安人用水牛的背部来做用于建造住宅的厚皮。野牛的其它部分也被做成了衣服和毯子。骨头被制成工具。没有浪费任何东西。
No one knows how many buffalo were in North America when Merriwether Lewis first met the Shoshone.But experts believe there were probably between 60 million and 75 million.
没人知道当Merriwether Lewis和Shoshone首次相遇时北美洲有多少头水牛。但是专家认为可能有60百万到75百万之间。
Another animal also played an important part in the Indian cultures of the Great Plains.When Native Americans first saw these animals, they called them big dogs or “mystery dogs.”They had no word for this kind of animal in their languages.
另一种动物也是大平原印度文化的重要组成部分。当美国人第一次看到这些动物时,称他们为神秘的狗。在他们的语言中没有这种动物的单词。
We know it as the horse.
我们知道这是马。
The horse had long been extinct in North America.
北美洲并没有马。
"You have to understand, there were horse species here, millions of years ago, but they died out 10,000 years ago, and so no one had seen a horse."
“你要明白,这个物种在数百万年前存在,但它们在1万年前就灭绝了,所以没人见过马。”
Until the arrival of Christoper Columbus, and other Spanish explorers.
直到Christoper Columbus和其他西班牙探险家来到这里。
Emil Her Many Horses, curator at the Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian in Washington, describes the at first frightening sight to the native Americans.
位于华盛顿的美国印第安博物馆国家博物馆馆长Emil Her Many Horses,描述了第一次看到土著美国人时的害怕心情。
So what comes back with the Spaniards, with Christopher Columbus on his second voyage, are horses as we know them today, the large animals.And so, you can understand that people who had never seen these before, then to see a rider on top of it, dressed in armor, it must have looked like this tank coming at you, that you did not know what it was.
因此,当西班牙人与Christopher Columbus在其第二次远航归来时,我们了解到这种大型动物是如今的马。因此,你可以了解,人们之前从未见过它们,看到身穿铠甲的骑士骑着马,就像坦克一样,你并不知道它是什么。
"So, of course, it struck fear – the Spaniards, the conquistadors, capitalized on that, realizing that it was causing fear and confusion,they actually put bells on there, adding that extra level of noise to frighten the natives, who’d never encountered the horse."
“因此,他们理所应当的产生恐惧--西班牙人和征服者利用这些造成恐惧和混乱,他们居然系上铃铛,增加额外的声音来吓唬当地人,因为他们从来没有遇到过马。”
Before the introduction of horses to North America, Indians mostly traveled by foot.Traveling long distances was difficult. So was hunting buffalo.
马引进到北美洲之前,印第安人大多靠徒步旅行。长途跋涉是很困难的。狩猎水牛也一样。
The horse greatly changed life for the tribes of the Great Plains.It gave them a new way to travel and to carry food and equipment.It made it easier, and safer, for them to follow and hunt the buffalo.
马大大改变了大平原部落的生活。这给了他们一个新的出行方式,提供了携带食物和设备的手段。这使人们更方便更安全地跟随和追捕水牛。
"Originally, you may have killed one or two buffalo, where, if you’re on horseback, you’d be able to kill more buffalo."
“最初,你可能在那里只能捕捉到一两只水牛,但如果你骑马的话,就能够捕捉更多只水牛。”
The Smithsonian’s Emil Her Many Horses, who is a member of the Oglala Lakota.
史密森的Emil Her Many Horses 是Oglala Lakota组织的成员。
"And, with killing more buffalo, you had more meat, you had more resources to make clothing from the hides And also to make teepees.So things became more and bigger.So you might see a bigger teepee because you had more hides.You were able to kill more buffalo and process it, and so, more abundance.”
“捕捉更多的水牛能得到更多的肉,更多的资源,用皮革来制衣,也能用来做圆锥形帐篷。因此这些东西变得越来越大。由于你有更多的皮革,你就可能会看到一个更大的帐篷。你能够杀死更多的水牛和拥有更多更丰富的处理方式。”
The horse made it possible to attack an enemy far away and return safely.The measure of a tribe’s wealth became the number of horses it owned.Spanish settlers rode horses to the small town of Santa Fe in what is now the southwestern state of New Mexico.They arrived there in about 1609.
马使得远距离攻击敌人并安全返回能为可能。拥有马匹的数量成为衡量一个部落的财富的尺度。西班牙殖民者骑着马去现在西南部新墨西哥州的Santa Fe小镇。他们在大约1609年抵达那里。
How Native Americans got their first horses is not known.Perhaps they traded for them. Perhaps they captured them.Soon, many tribes were doing both.By the 1750s, all the tribes of the Great Plains had horses.They had become experts at raising, training and riding them.And they became experts at horse medicine.
不知道土著美国人如何得到他们的第一匹马。也许他们通过交易得来。也许他们在一次袭击中掠夺而来。不久,许多部落都开始这样做。到了18世纪50年代,所有大平原上的部落都有了马。他们已成为饲养,训练和骑马专家。 他们成为马医专家。
Indians of the Great Plains could ride a horse by the age of five.As an adult, a man would have one horse for work.Another would be specially trained for hunting.
大平原上的每个印第安人在5岁时就会骑马。作为成年人,一个人会有一匹用于工作的马。另一匹马将专门训练用来打猎。
A horse would be trained to ride into the herd.And buffalos, although they’re huge in their size, they can turn very quickly.So, a horse had to be ready and be able to anticipate that, so you did have hunting horses that were trained to ride into a herd of buffalo.
一匹马将被训练骑向畜群。尽管水牛的身材巨大,但它们可以非常迅速地改变方向。因此,一匹马要事先做好准备,能够预见这些,因此你可以骑一匹被训练骑向水牛群的马来打猎。
And a third would be trained for war.An Indian warrior’s success depended on how closely he and his horse worked together.
三分之一的马被训练用来打仗。一位印第安战士的成功取决于他和他的马怎样亲近地在一起工作。
"You wanted to train this horse.I mean, you were one in battle with the horse.When you went into battle, you were a brother, an ally, a comrade.So the horse was trained to fight in close skirmishes.”
“你想训练这匹马。我的意思是,你和马都是战斗中的一员。当你上阵时,你身兼兄弟,盟友和战友的身份。因此要训练马匹争取在小规模冲突中战斗。”
George Catlin was an artist who traveled in the early American West.He painted many pictures of the Indians and their horses.Catlin said the Plains Indian was the greatest rider the world had ever known.He said the moment an Indian laid a hand on his horse he became part of the animal.
George Catlin是一位在早期美国西部旅行的艺术家。他画了很多印第安人和他们的马匹的图画。Catlin称,平原印第安人是曾经世界上最伟大的骑士。他说,一旦印第安人将手放在他的马身上,他立刻就与马融为了一体。
Both the buffalo and the horse were extremely important to the Plains Indians.Because the horse made hunting easier, more time could be spent on other activities, including art.The Plains Indians began to make designs on their clothing, and on blankets for their horses.
水牛和马对于大平原的印第安人来说极为重要。因为马使得狩猎变得更容易,更多的时间可用于艺术一类的其他活动上。平原印第安人开始在他们的衣服上和盖在马匹身上的毯子上绘制图案。
The arrival of white settlers on the Great Plains marked the beginning of the end for the horse and buffalo culture of the Indians.Settlers did not want buffalo destroying their crops.Great numbers of buffalo were killed.By 1885, the Indians of the Great Plains were mostly restricted to areas called reservations.
白人来到大平原上定居,标志着印第安人马和水牛文明的终结。定居者不想让水牛破坏了他们的庄稼。大批的水牛被打死。 到1885年,大平原上的印第安人主要被限制在称为保留地的区域内。
America’s westward expansion led to violent clashes between white settlers and Native Americans.That will be our story next week.
美国向西扩张导致白人殖民者和土著美国人之间的暴力冲突。这将是我们下周的故事。

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