研究人员警告:机器人对非洲就业构成巨大威胁 分享到
Robots Pose Big Threat to Jobs in Africa, Researchers Warn 2018-04-0475831

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Outsourcing production by using cheap labor in the developing world has underpinned the global economy for decades.
利用发展中国家廉价劳动力提供的生产外包已经支撑了全球经济数十年。
But technology could be about to turn that on its head.
但科技可能即将扭转这种局面。
Research from the Overseas Development Institute focused on the example of furniture manufacturing in Africa.
海外发展研究所专注于研究非洲家具制造业在此方面的状况。
In the next 15 to 20 years, robots in U.S. are actually going to become much cheaper than Kenyan labor, particularly in the furniture manufacturing industry. So this means that around 2033, American companies will find it much more profitable to reshore production back.Which means essentially get all the jobs and production back from the developing countries to the U.S. And that obviously you know can have very significantly negative effects for jobs in Africa.
在未来15到20年内,美国的机器人实际上将比肯尼亚的劳动力便宜得多,特别是在家具制造业上。这意味着在2033年前后,美国企业会发现生产回岸将更有利可图。即将所有的工作和生产从发展中国家转移回到美国。很明显,这将对非洲就业产生极其严重的负面影响。
As robots are getting cheaper, people are getting more expensive.
随着机器人越来越廉价,人工也越来越昂贵。
So the cost of a robot or the cost of a 3D printer, they’re declining at similar levels, around 6 percent annually. So that’s a significant decline,whereas wages in developing countries are rising.
“机器人或3D打印机的成本,每年都下降约6%。这是一个显著的下降,而发展中国家的工资却正在上涨。”
By 2038, the ODI predicts it will be cheaper to make clothing in the United States using robots than to import it from Ethiopia.
到2038年,ODI预测在美国本土使用机器人生产的服装将比从埃塞俄比亚进口的便宜。
Last year Sports giant Adidas invested in automated plants in Germany and the United Statesincluding using 3d printers to make these sneakers.
去年,体育巨头阿迪达斯在德国和美国投资自动化计划,包括使用3D打印机制作运动鞋。
That has led to loss like 1,000 jobs in Vietnam until now and that’s going to be significantly increased in the future.
到目前为止,这种状况已经导致越南失去了大约1000个就业岗位,而且未来将大幅增加。
Adidas bosses say they do not envisage further large-scale reshoring of jobs.
阿迪达斯的老板们表示,他们不打算进一步实施大规模地就业回岸。
But there is no doubting the challenges posed by automation to manual labor in developing countries.
但毫无疑问,自动化给发展中国家的体力劳动者带来了挑战。
Some are fighting back.
有些国家正在反击。
Kenyan firm Funkidz has invested heavily in computer-aided design and manufacturing of furniture.
肯尼亚Funkidz公司在家具的计算机辅助设计和制造方面投入巨资。
Using these technologies they’ve been able to achieve impressive growth and they’ve also expanded to regional markets like Rwanda and Uganda.
利用这些技术,他们取得了令人瞩目的增长,并且还将市场扩展到了卢旺达和乌干达等地区。
Funkidz CEO says the government needs to match her firm’s enthusiasm for technology.
Funkidz的首席执行官表示,政府需要支持其公司对技术的热衷。
We have machines that sit idle because we don’t have skilled people. There are many people who need jobs, yes, we agree, but if they have no skill… I would love to employ you, but you need a skill, otherwise you cannot operate our machines.So we are urging all institutions, government, please let us take this skills gap as a crisis."
“因为没有技术熟练的员工,我们有许多机器被闲置。我们也明白有很多人需要工作,但如果他们没有技能......我很想聘用你,但你得有技术,不然你没发操控我们的机器。所以我们敦促所有机构,政府,请让把这种技术差距当做一种危机。”
That call is echoed by the ODI report authors, who urge African governments to use the current window of opportunity to build industrial capabilities and digital skills before the jobs crunch hits.
这一呼吁得到了ODI报告作者的支持,他们敦促非洲各国政府利用当前的机会之窗,在就业危机来临之前,建设工业能力和数字技能。
Henry Ridgwell for VOA News London
亨利·里格韦尔,美国之音伦敦为您报道。

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