美国宪法第三条 分享到
The U.S. Constitution - Article Three 2017-12-0161770

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Article Three of the U.S. Constitution establishes the federal court system, which makes up the judicial branch of the United States’ government.The judicial branch includes the U.S. Supreme court, as well as lower federal courts, which are established by the Congress.The Supreme Court is usually understood to be the highest appellate court, but it does have the ability, granted to it by Article Three, to hear original, first-time cases.Article Three also grants Congress the ability to define federal crimes and to decide how transgressions against federal laws may be punished.In addition, Article Three protects the right to trial by jury in all criminal cases, and defines the crime of treason.
美国宪法第三条设立了组成美国政府司法部门的联邦法院体系。司法部门包括由美国国会设立的美国最高法院和下级联邦法院。最高法院通常被认为是最高上诉法院,但也具有宪法第三条授予的听取原始初审的权力。第三条还赋予国会界定联邦犯罪的权力,同时国会有权宣告对违反联邦法律行为的惩罚。此外,宪法第三条保护陪审团在所有刑事案件中的审判权,并对叛国罪进行界定。
Section 1 declares that the judicial power of the United States rests in federal courts, which have the authority to interpret and apply the law to any particular case.Federal courts also have the power to punish, sentence, and direct future action to resolve conflicts. The Constitution expressly outlines the federal judicial system.
第三条第一款规定,美利坚合众国的司法权属于联邦法院,联邦法院有权针对任何具体案件进行法律解释及应用。同时,联邦法院有权惩罚、判决并指导未来行动以解决各种冲突。美国宪法明确规定了联邦司法制度。
To enforce judicial decisions, the Constitution grants federal courts protection from contempt.In other words, anyone defying the courts’ authority, casting disrespect on a court, or impeding its ability court to perform its function may be immediately punished.
为执行司法裁决,美国宪法保障联邦法院免受轻视。换言之,任何违反法院权威、藐视法庭或妨碍法院履行职能者都可能立即受到惩罚。
Clause 2 of Section 2 specifies that the Supreme Court has original jurisdiction in cases involving ambassadors, ministers and consuls. Indeed, Federal courts are empowered by Article Three to hear any case arising under the laws of the United States and its treaties;cases dealing with international maritime law and conflicting land grants of different states;as well as cases in which the parties live in different states, or where one of the parties is a foreign state, or the citizen of a foreign state.
第二款第二项规定,最高法院对涉及大使、公使和领事的案件具有初审管辖权。事实上,根据第三条,联邦法院有权审理任何在美国法律及条约规定内的案件;涉及国际海洋法与不同州政府赠地冲突的案件;以及当事人居住于不同州、或其中一方居住国外或为外国公民的案件。
But the most important function of the federal courts is to check unconstitutional abuses of power by the President or by Congress. As Alexander Hamilton, one of the framers of the U.S. Constitution put it: “The interpretation of the laws is the proper and peculiar province of the courts. A constitution is, in fact, and must be regarded by the judges, as a fundamental law.”
不过联邦法院最重要的职能是核查总统或国会的违宪滥权行为。正如美国制宪者之一亚历山大·汉密尔顿(Alexander Hamilton)所言:“法律解释是法院应有及特有的职权。事实上,法官必须将宪法视为一项基本法。”

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