美国宪法第四条 分享到:
The U.S. Constitution - Article Four 2017-12-0467329

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Article Four of the US Constitution outlines relations among the states, and between each state and the federal government. It sets out the responsibilities and duties of the states as well as responsibilities that the federal government has to the states.
美国宪法第四条概述了各州之间、各州与联邦政府之间的关系。规定了各州的责任和义务以及联邦政府对各州的责任。
Article Four sets the rules for such matters as admitting new states and border changes between the states.For instance, the first Section, called “the Full Faith and Credit Clause,” stipulates that each state must recognize and respect the public acts and decisions of other states.It also stresses that the Congress may monitor such interactions between states, and may stipulate how proof of such acts may be admitted.
第四条规定了准许新州加入联邦和各州间边界变更等事项。例如,第四条第一款“完全的信赖与尊重条款”,规定各州都必须承认和尊重其它各州的公共法案与决定。第一款还强调,国会可以监督各州之间的这种相互关系,并可以规定此类法案的验定方法。
The “Privileges and Immunities Clause” also prohibits state governments from discriminating against citizens of other states. For example, should two people, one from Michigan and the other from Ohio, be convicted of the same crime in Michigan,the state may not impose a tougher penalty on the resident of Ohio.
“特权和豁免权条款”也禁止州政府歧视他州公民。例如,如果分别来自密歇根州和俄亥俄州的两个人在密歇根州被判处同样的罪行,密歇根州不得强制对俄亥俄州公民判处更严厉的惩罚。
Article Four also provides for extradition of fugitives between the states, and lays down a legal basis for freedom of interstate travel.Today, this provision is sometimes taken for granted, but in the days before the Constitution was written, crossing state lines was often difficult and costly.
第四条还对州间逃犯的引渡做出规定,为美国州际旅行自由奠定了法律基础。今天,这条规定常被认为是理所当然的,但在《宪法》出台之前的日子里,跨越州界往往十分困难而昂贵。
Under Article Four, the federal government of the United States guarantees to every state a democratic form of government,and will protect each of the states against foreign invasion. If a state’s legislature, or its executive (when the legislature cannot be convened) asks for help, the federal government is required to defend it against domestic rebellion or political violence.As well, Article Four empowers the Congress to make rules for disposing of federal property and governing non-state territories of the United States.
根据第四条,美国联邦政府保证本联邦各州实行共和政体,保护各州免遭外来入侵。在州议会或州行政长官(在州议会不能召开时)请求帮助时,联邦政府必须为之平定内部叛乱或政治暴力。第四条还授权国会制定关于处理联邦财产及管理美国非国有土地的规章制度。
In Federalist No. 43, James Madison wrote: “A protection against invasion is due from every society to the parts composing it.The latitude of the expression here used, seems to secure each state not only against foreign hostility,but against ambitious or vindictive enterprises of its more powerful neighbors. The history both of ancient and modern confederacies, proves that the weaker members of the Union ought not to be insensible to the policy of this article.”
詹姆斯·麦迪逊在《联邦党人文集第43篇》中写道:“抵御外侮是每个社会的组成部分所应该做到的事情。这里所说的范围似乎是保护每一个州,不仅防御外敌的侵犯,而且防止比其更加强大的邻人的野心或存心复仇的图谋。古今联盟的历史证明,联盟的弱小成员不应该对这个条款的方针无动于衷。”
In other words, the Constitution protects all states equally and guarantees to the citizens of each state a democratic form of government.
换言之,美国宪法平等地保护美国各州,并保证各州公民都能享有共和政体。

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